A Practical Guide to First-Order Multiplet Analysis in 1H NMR Spectroscopy

Thomas R. Hoye, Paul R. Hanson, James R. Vyvyan

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63 Scopus citations


The ability to deduce the proper set of coupling constant (J) values from a complex first-order multiplet in a 1H NMR spectrum is an extremely important asset. This is particularly valuable to the task of assigning relative configurations among two or more stereocenters in a molecule. Most books and treatises that deal with coupling constant analysis address the less useful operation of generating splitting trees to create the line pattern from a given set of J values. Presented here are general and systematic protocols for the converse, i.e., for deducing the complete set of J values from the multiplet. Two analytical methods (A, systematic analysis of line spacings, and B, construction of what can be called inverted splitting trees) are presented first. A reasonably thorough and systematic set of graphical representations of common doublet of doublets (dd's), ddd's, and dddd's are then presented. These constitute a complementary method for identification of J's through visual pattern recognition. These approaches are effective strategies for extraction of coupling constant values from even the most complex first-order multiplets.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4096-4103
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Organic Chemistry
Issue number15
StatePublished - Jul 1 1994


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