The intestinal microbiota has been implicated in the pathogenesis of complications following colorectal surgery, yet perioperative changes in gut microbiome composition are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the perioperative gut microbiome in patients undergoing colonoscopy and colorectal surgery and determine factors influencing its composition. Using Illumina amplicon sequencing coupled with targeted metabolomics, we characterized the fecal microbiota in: (A) patients (n = 15) undergoing colonoscopy who received mechanical bowel preparation, and (B) patients (n = 15) undergoing colorectal surgery who received surgical bowel preparation, composed of mechanical bowel preparation with oral antibiotics, and perioperative intravenous antibiotics. Microbiome composition was characterized before and up to six months following each intervention. Colonoscopy patients had minor shifts in bacterial community composition that recovered to baseline at a mean of 3 (1–13) days. Surgery patients demonstrated substantial shifts in bacterial composition with greater abundances of Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, and Streptococcus. Compositional changes persisted in the early postoperative period with recovery to baseline beginning at a mean of 31 (16–43) days. Our results support surgical bowel preparation as a factor significantly influencing gut microbial composition following colorectal surgery, while mechanical bowel preparation has little impact.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Sequence processing and analysis were done using the resources of the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.
This study was funded by the Hubbard Family private fund for advancing treatment practices to improve patient outcomes in colorectal surgery (fund 21692 – University of Minnesota).
© 2022, The Author(s).
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't