Interactions that shape parasitoid host ranges occur within the context of both host and parasitoid phylogenetic history. While host-associated speciation of parasitoids can lead to increased host specificity, it can also lead to a broadening of host range through radiation onto a new group of host species. In both cases, sister-species of parasitoids may have widely divergent host ranges. But how should host range be estimated? Traditional views of host ranges as simple lists of species have given way to analyses that can detect host phylogenetic signal. Host relatedness can also be codified into useful indices that reflect the phylogenetic breadth of host range. All of these considerations have important implications for biological control, particularly in the realm of risk assessment.
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