A new method has been developed to analyze the primary products of phospholipid peroxidation. The procedure utilizes the ability of phospholipase C to hydrolyze phospholipid hydroperoxides to their corresponding diacylglycerol derivatives. 1-Palmitoyl-2-linoleoylphosphatidylcholine (1P,2L-GPC), 1-stearoyl-2-linoleoylphosphatidylcholine (1S,2L-GPC), and 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonylphosphatidylcholine (1S,2A-GPC) were autoxidized. The diacylglycerol hydroxides derived from the phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides were separated by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and normal-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (NP-HPLC). 1P,2L-diglyceride (1P,2L-DG) and 1P,2A-DG products were easily separated from 1S,2L-DG and 1S,2A-DG products by RP-HPLC. The linoleate diglyceride oxidation mixture was separated into the 13-trans/cis, 13-trans/trans, 9-trans/cis, and 9-trans/trans isomers by NP-HPLC. Likewise, 1P,2A-DG and 1S,2A-DG oxidation products were resolved into the 15-trans/cis, 15-trans/trans, 12-trans/cis, 11-trans/cis, 9-trans/cis, 8-trans/cis, and 5-trans/cis isomers. In both of the above cases, the 1,2-diacylglycerol isomers could be separated from the 1,3 isomers. Moreover, the diastereomers of the 9-, 8-, and 5-hydroxides could be separated. Each of the diacylglycerol oxidation products was characterized by (1) proton nuclear magnetic resonance (proton NMR), (2) electron ionization—mass spectrometry (EI—MS), and (3) NP-HPLC of the corresponding fatty acids. The diacylglycerol analysis provided the same results for the autoxidation of 1P,2L-GPC as the fatty acid methyl ester analysis. In addition, when 1S,2A-GPC was autoxidized in the presence of 5% α-tocopherol, both diastereomers of the 5-hydroxide were observed in the same proportions as the other hydroxides.