A Phase I/II Study of Escalating Doses of Bortezomib in Conjunction with High-Dose Melphalan as a Conditioning Regimen for Salvage Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Multiple Myeloma

Noa Biran, Scott D. Rowley, David H. Vesole, Shijia Zhang, Michele L. Donato, Joshua Richter, Alan P. Skarbnik, Andrew Pecora, David S. Siegel

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8 Scopus citations

Abstract

Escalating doses of bortezomib with high-dose melphalan was evaluated as as a conditioning regimen for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (MM). MM patients with less than a partial remission (PR) (or 50% reduction) compared to their pretransplantation paraprotein parameters after a prior ASCT with melphalan conditioning, or who were in relapse after a prior autologous transplantation, were eligible for study. Bortezomib was dose escalated in steps of 1, 1.3, and 1.6 mg/m2 (3 × 3 design) on days −4 and −1 before transplantation with melphalan 200 mg/m2 given on day −2. Thirty-two patients were enrolled: 12 in the phase I dose escalation phase and an additional 20 in phase II to gain additional experience with the regimen. Twenty-four (75%) patients were Durie Salmon stage III, and 12 (37.5%) had >2 prior lines of therapy. The overall response rate (≥PR) was 44% with 22% complete remission. Two-year overall survival and progression-free survival were 76% and 39%, respectively, with a median follow-up of 31.7 months. The most common grade 3 and 4 nonhematologic adverse events were neutropenic fever (25%), nausea (18.8%), and mucositis (9.4%). Serious adverse events included intensive care unit admission (9.4%), seizure (3.1%), prolonged diarrhea (3.1%), and Guillain-Barre syndrome (3.1%). Two patients (6%) died of sepsis. There was no emergent peripheral neuropathy nor increase in any pre-existing peripheral neuropathy. The addition of bortezomib to melphalan as conditioning for salvage ASCT was well tolerated. More importantly, it can provide durable remission for patients who have a suboptimal response to prior single-agent melphalan conditioning for ASCT, without requiring a reduction in the dose of melphalan. Larger randomized prospective studies to determine the effect of combination conditioning are being conducted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2165-2171
Number of pages7
JournalBiology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Volume22
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2016

Keywords

  • Bortezomib
  • Melphalan
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Peripheral blood autologous stem cell transplantation

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