A novel preclinical method to quantitatively evaluate early-stage metastatic events at the murine blood-brain barrier

Chris E. Adkins, Mohamed I. Nounou, Rajendar K. Mittapalli, Tori B. Terrell-Hall, Afroz S. Mohammad, Rajaganapathi Jagannathan, Paul R. Lockman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


The observation that approximately 15% of women with disseminated breast cancer will develop symptomatic brain metastases combined with treatment guidelines discouraging single-agent chemotherapeutic strategies facilitates the desire for novel strategies aimed at outright brain metastasis prevention. Effective and robust preclinical methods to evaluate early-stage metastatic processes, brain metastases burden, and overall mean survival are lacking. Here, we develop a novel method to quantitate early metastatic events (arresting and extravasation) in addition to traditional end time-point parameters such as tumor burden and survival in an experimental mouse model of brain metastases of breast cancer. Using this method, a reduced number of viable brain-seeking metastatic cells (from 3,331 ± 263 cells/brain to 1,079 ± 495 cells/brain) were arrested in brain one week postinjection after TGFβ knockdown. Treatment with a TGFβ receptor inhibitor, galunisertib, reduced the number of arrested cells in brain to 808 ± 82 cells/brain. Furthermore, we observed a reduction in the percentage of extravasated cells (from 63% to 30%) compared with cells remaining intralumenal when TGFβ is knocked down or inhibited with galunisertib (40%). The observed reduction of extravasated metastatic cells in brain translated to smaller and fewer brain metastases and resulted in prolonged mean survival (from 36 days to 62 days). This method opens up potentially new avenues of metastases prevention research by providing critical data important to early brain metastasis of breast cancer events.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)68-76
Number of pages9
JournalCancer Prevention Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
©2014 AACR.


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