Goal: Develop and characterize the functionality of a novel thin-film probe technology with a higher density of electrode contacts than are currently available with commercial deep brain stimulation (DBS) lead technology. Such technology has potential to enhance the spatial precision of DBS and enable a more robust approach to sensing local field potential activity in the context of adaptive DBS strategies. Methods: Thin-film planar arrays were microfabricated and then assembled on a cylindrical carrier to achieve a lead with 3-D conformation. Using an integrated and removable stylet, the arrays were chronically implanted in the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus in two parkinsonian nonhuman primates. Results: This study provides the first in vivo data from chronically implanted DBS arrays for translational nonhuman primate studies. Stimulation through the arrays induced a decrease in parkinsonian rigidity, and directing current around the lead showed an orientation dependence for eliciting motor capsule side effects. The array recordings also showed that oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia is heterogeneous at a smaller scale than detected by the current DBS lead technology. Conclusion: These 3-D DBS arrays provide an enabling tool for future studies that seek to monitor and modulate deep brain activity through chronically implanted leads. Significance: DBS lead technology with a higher density of electrode contacts has potential to enable sculpting DBS current flow and sensing biomarkers of disease and therapy.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors would like to thank R. Shoemaker, C. Rackham, J. Jeon, F. Agnesi, Y. Xiao, D. Zhang, and L. Zitella for their technical assistance. They would also like to thank S. Cogan (University of Texas at Dallas) and EIC Biomedical for electrochemical testing services. This work was supported by grants from the NIH (R44-NS060269 and R01-NS081118) and from the Michael J Fox Foundation. The work of A. T. Connolly was supported by the NSF under GRFP (0006595) and NSF-IGERT SystemsNeuroengineering program (DGE-1069104).
- Current steering
- Deep brain stimulation (DBS)
- Implantable biomedical electrodes
- Neural engineering