The dispersion in air of nanoparticles of different sizes, materials and morphologies with controlled agglomeration involving aerosol delivery for in vivo and in vitro studies is one of the most difficult challenges in the field of nanoparticle toxicology. We describe here a nanoparticle dispersion system using an electrospray method to deliver airborne nanoparticles (∼ 10-100 nm) with spatial uniformity and controllable particle concentration for in vitro and in vivo studies. With the dispersion method, single nanoparticles (polystyrene latex particles, TiO2, Au, Mn, quantum dots, and carbon nanotubes) can be delivered to cells and animals via the air. The degree of agglomeration can be controlled by changing the suspension feeding rate to simulate realistic conditions for exposure studies.
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Declaration of interest: This work was supported by a grant from the U.S. Department of Defense (AFOSR) MURI Grant (FA9550-04-1-0430). Parts of this work were carried out in the Minnesota Characterization Facility and the Particle Technology Laboratory, which receive partial support from NSF through the NNIN program.
- In vitro
- In vivo