A multi-country test of brief reappraisal interventions on emotions during the COVID-19 pandemic

Ke Wang, Amit Goldenberg, Charles A. Dorison, Jeremy K. Miller, Andero Uusberg, Jennifer S. Lerner, James J. Gross, Bamikole Bamikole Agesin, Márcia Bernardo, Olatz Campos, Luis Eudave, Karolina Grzech, Daphna Hausman Ozery, Emily A. Jackson, Elkin Oswaldo Luis Garcia, Shira Meir Drexler, Anita Penić Jurković, Kafeel Rana, John Paul Wilson, Maria AntoniadiKermeka Desai, Zoi Gialitaki, Elizaveta Kushnir, Khaoula Nadif, Olalla Niño Bravo, Rafia Nauman, Marlies Oosterlinck, Myrto Pantazi, Natalia Pilecka, Anna Szabelska, I. M.M. van Steenkiste, Katarzyna Filip, Andreea Ioana Bozdoc, Gabriela Mariana Marcu, Elena Agadullina, Matúš Adamkovič, Marta Roczniewska, Cecilia Reyna, Angelos P. Kassianos, Minja Westerlund, Lina Ahlgren, Sara Pöntinen, Gabriel Agboola Adetula, Pinar Dursun, Azuka Ikechukwu Arinze, Nwadiogo Chisom Arinze, Chisom Esther Ogbonnaya, Izuchukwu L.G. Ndukaihe, Ilker Dalgar, Handan Akkas, Paulo Manuel Macapagal, Savannah Lewis, Irem Metin-Orta, Francesco Foroni, Megan Willis, Anabela Caetano Santos, Aviv Mokady, Niv Reggev, Merve A. Kurfali, Martin R. Vasilev, Nora L. Nock, Michal Parzuchowski, Mauricio F. Espinoza Barría, Marek Vranka, Markéta Braun Kohlová, Ivan Ropovik, Mikayel Harutyunyan, Chunhui Wang, Elvin Yao, Maja Becker, Efisio Manunta, Gwenael Kaminski, Dafne Marko, Kortnee Evans, David M.G. Lewis, Andrej Findor, Anais Thibault Landry, John Jamir Benzon Aruta, Manuel S. Ortiz, Zahir Vally, Ekaterina Pronizius, Martin Voracek, Claus Lamm, Maurice Grinberg, Ranran Li, Jaroslava Varella Valentova, Giovanna Mioni, Nicola Cellini, Sau Chin Chen, Janis Zickfeld, Karis Moon, Habiba Azab, Neil Levy, Alper Karababa, Jennifer L. Beaudry, Leanne Boucher, W. Matthew Collins, Anna Louise Todsen, Kevin van Schie, Jáchym Vintr, Jozef Bavolar, Lada Kaliska, Valerija Križanić, Lara Samojlenko, Razieh Pourafshari, Sandra J. Geiger, Julia Beitner, Lara Warmelink, Robert M. Ross, Ian D. Stephen, Thomas J. Hostler, Soufian Azouaghe, Randy McCarthy, Anna Szala, Caterina Grano, Claudio Singh Solorzano, Gulnaz Anjum, William Jimenez-Leal, Maria Bradford, Laura Calderón Pérez, Julio E. Cruz Vásquez, Oscar J. Galindo-Caballero, Juan Camilo Vargas-Nieto, Ondřej Kácha, Alexios Arvanitis, Qinyu Xiao, Rodrigo Cárcamo, Saša Zorjan, Zuzanna Tajchman, Iris Vilares, Jeffrey M. Pavlacic, Jonas R. Kunst, Christian K. Tamnes, Claudia C. von Bastian, Mohammad Atari, Mohammad Hasan Sharifian, Monika Hricova, Pavol Kačmár, Jana Schrötter, Rima Maria Rahal, Noga Cohen, Saiedeh FatahModarres, Miha Zrimsek, Ilya Zakharov, Monica A. Koehn, Celia Esteban-Serna, Robert J. Calin-Jageman, Anthony J. Krafnick, Eva Štrukelj, Peder Mortvedt Isager, Jan Urban, Jaime R. Silva, Marcel Martončik, Sanja Batić Očovaj, Dušana Šakan, Anna O. Kuzminska, Jasna Milosevic Djordjevic, Inês A.T. Almeida, Ana Ferreira, Ljiljana B. Lazarevic, Harry Manley, Danilo Zambrano Ricaurte, Renan P. Monteiro, Zahra Etabari, Erica Musser, Daniel Dunleavy, Weilun Chou, Hendrik Godbersen, Susana Ruiz-Fernández, Crystal Reeck, Carlota Batres, Komila Kirgizova, Abdumalik Muminov, Flavio Azevedo, Daniela Serrato Alvarez, Muhammad Mussaffa Butt, Jeong Min Lee, Zhang Chen, Frederick Verbruggen, Ignazio Ziano, Murat Tümer, Abdelilah C.A. Charyate, Dmitrii Dubrov, María del Carmen M.C. Tejada Rivera, Christopher Aberson, Bence Pálfi, Mónica Alarcón Maldonado, Barbora Hubena, Asli Sacakli, Chris D. Ceary, Karley L. Richard, Gage Singer, Jennifer T. Perillo, Tonia Ballantyne, Wilson Cyrus-Lai, Maksim Fedotov, Hongfei Du, Magdalena Wielgus, Ilse L. Pit, Matej Hruška, Daniela Sousa, Balazs Aczel, Barnabas Szaszi, Sylwia Adamus, Krystian Barzykowski, Leticia Micheli, Nadya Daniela Schmidt, Andras N. Zsido, Mariola Paruzel-Czachura, Michal Bialek, Marta Kowal, Agnieszka Sorokowska, Michal Misiak, Débora Mola, María Victoria Ortiz, Pablo Sebastián Correa, Anabel Belaus, Fany Muchembled, Rafael R. Ribeiro, Patricia Arriaga, Raquel Oliveira, Leigh Ann Vaughn, Paulina Szwed, Małgorzata Kossowska, Gabriela Czarnek, Julita Kielińska, Benedict Antazo, Ruben Betlehem, Stefan Stieger, Gustav Nilsonne, Nicolle Simonovic, Jennifer Taber, Amélie Gourdon-Kanhukamwe, Artur Domurat, Keiko Ihaya, Yuki Yamada, Anum Urooj, Tripat Gill, Martin Čadek, Lisa Bylinina, Johanna Messerschmidt, Murathan Kurfalı, Adeyemi Adetula, Ekaterina Baklanova, Nihan Albayrak-Aydemir, Heather B. Kappes, Biljana Gjoneska, Thea House, Marc V. Jones, Jana B. Berkessel, William J. Chopik, Sami Çoksan, Martin Seehuus, Ahmed Khaoudi, Ahmed Bokkour, Kanza Ait El Arabi, Ikhlas Djamai, Aishwarya Iyer, Neha Parashar, Arca Adiguzel, Halil Emre Kocalar, Carsten Bundt, James O. Norton, Marietta Papadatou-Pastou, Anabel De la Rosa-Gomez, Vladislav Ankushev, Natalia Bogatyreva, Dmitry Grigoryev, Aleksandr Ivanov, Irina Prusova, Marina Romanova, Irena Sarieva, Maria Terskova, Evgeniya Hristova, Veselina Hristova Kadreva, Allison Janak, Vidar Schei, Therese E. Sverdrup, Adrian Dahl Askelund, Lina Maria Sanabria Pineda, Dajana Krupić, Carmel A. Levitan, Niklas Johannes, Nihal Ouherrou, Nicolas Say, Sladjana Sinkolova, Kristina Janjić, Marija Stojanovska, Dragana Stojanovska, Meetu Khosla, Andrew G. Thomas, Franki Y.H. Kung, Gijsbert Bijlstra, Farnaz Mosannenzadeh, Busra Bahar Balci, Ulf Dietrich Reips, Ernest Baskin, Byurakn Ishkhanyan, Johanna Czamanski-Cohen, Barnaby James Wyld Dixson, David Moreau, Clare A.M. Sutherland, Hu Chuan-Peng, Chris Noone, Heather Flowe, Michele Anne, Steve M.J. Janssen, Marta Topor, Nadyanna M. Majeed, Yoshihiko Kunisato, Karen Yu, Shimrit Daches, Andree Hartanto, Milica Vdovic, Lisa Anton-Boicuk, Paul A.G. Forbes, Julia Kamburidis, Evelina Marinova, Mina Nedelcheva-Datsova, Nikolay R. Rachev, Alina Stoyanova, Kathleen Schmidt, Jordan W. Suchow, Maria Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Teodor Jernsäther, Jonas K. Olofsson, Olga Bialobrzeska, Magdalena Marszalek, Srinivasan Tatachari, Reza Afhami, Wilbert Law, Jan Antfolk, Barbara Žuro, Natalia Van Doren, Jose A. Soto, Rachel Searston, Jacob Miranda, Kaja Damnjanović, Siu Kit Yeung, Dino Krupić, Karlijn Hoyer, Bastian Jaeger, Dongning Ren, Gerit Pfuhl, Kristoffer Klevjer, Nadia S. Corral-Frías, Martha Frias-Armenta, Marc Y. Lucas, Adriana Olaya Torres, Mónica Toro, Lady Grey Javela Delgado, Diego Vega, Sara Álvarez Solas, Roosevelt Vilar, Sébastien Massoni, Thomas Frizzo, Alexandre Bran, David C. Vaidis, Luc Vieira, Bastien Paris, Mariagrazia Capizzi, Gabriel Lins de Holanda Coelho, Anna Greenburgh, Cassie M. Whitt, Alexa M. Tullett, Xinkai Du, Leonhard Volz, Minke Jasmijn Bosma, Cemre Karaarslan, Eylül Sarıoğuz, Tara Bulut Allred, Max Korbmacher, Melissa F. Colloff, Tiago J.S. Lima, Matheus Fernando Felix Ribeiro, Jeroen P.H. Verharen, Maria Karekla, Christiana Karashiali, Naoyuki Sunami, Lisa M. Jaremka, Daniel Storage, Sumaiya Habib, Anna Studzinska, Paul H.P. Hanel, Dawn Liu Holford, Miroslav Sirota, Kelly Wolfe, Faith Chiu, Andriana Theodoropoulou, El Rim Ahn, Yijun Lin, Erin C. Westgate, Hilmar Brohmer, Gabriela Hofer, Olivier Dujols, Kevin Vezirian, Gilad Feldman, Giovanni A. Travaglino, Afroja Ahmed, Manyu Li, Jasmijn Bosch, Nathan Torunsky, Hui Bai, Mathi Manavalan, Xin Song, Radoslaw B. Walczak, Przemysław Zdybek, Maja Friedemann, Anna Dalla Rosa, Luca Kozma, Sara G. Alves, Samuel Lins, Isabel R. Pinto, Rita C. Correia, Peter Babinčák, Gabriel Banik, Luis Miguel Rojas-Berscia, Marco A.C. Varella, Jim Uttley, Julie E. Beshears, Katrine Krabbe Thommesen, Behzad Behzadnia, Shawn N. Geniole, Miguel A. Silan, Princess Lovella G. Maturan, Johannes K. Vilsmeier, Ulrich S. Tran, Sara Morales Izquierdo, Michael C. Mensink, Piotr Sorokowski, Agata Groyecka-Bernard, Theda Radtke, Vera Cubela Adoric, Joelle Carpentier, Asil Ali Özdoğru, Jennifer A. Joy-Gaba, Mattie V. Hedgebeth, Tatsunori Ishii, Aaron L. Wichman, Jan Philipp Röer, Thomas Ostermann, William E. Davis, Lilian Suter, Konstantinos Papachristopoulos, Chelsea Zabel, Charles R. Ebersole, Christopher R. Chartier, Peter R. Mallik, Heather L. Urry, Erin M. Buchanan, Nicholas A. Coles, Maximilian A. Primbs, Dana M. Basnight-Brown, Hans IJzerman, Patrick S. Forscher, Hannah Moshontz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that modifies how one thinks about a situation. Participants from 87 countries and regions (n = 21,644) were randomly assigned to one of two brief reappraisal interventions (reconstrual or repurposing) or one of two control conditions (active or passive). Results revealed that both reappraisal interventions (vesus both control conditions) consistently reduced negative emotions and increased positive emotions across different measures. Reconstrual and repurposing interventions had similar effects. Importantly, planned exploratory analyses indicated that reappraisal interventions did not reduce intentions to practice preventive health behaviours. The findings demonstrate the viability of creating scalable, low-cost interventions for use around the world. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: The stage 1 protocol for this Registered Report was accepted in principle on 12 May 2020. The protocol, as accepted by the journal, can be found at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.4878591.v1.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1089-1110
Number of pages22
JournalNature Human Behaviour
Volume5
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This project was supported by funds from: the Amazon Web Services (AWS) Imagine Grant (to E.M.B.); the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (JSPS KAKENHI; 16h03079, 17h00875, 18k12015, and 20h04581 to Y.Y.); the research programme Dipartimenti di Eccellenza from the Ministry of Education University and Research (MIUR to N. Cellini and G.M. and the Department of General Psychology of the University of Padua); statutory funds of the University of Wroclaw (to A. Sorokowska); the Charles University Research Programme PROGRES (Q18 to M. Vranka); the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (2016:0229 to J.K.O.); the Rubicon Grant (019.183sg.007 to K.v.S.) from the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research; the Australian Research Council (dp180102384 to R.M.R.); the US National Institutes of Health (NIMH111640 to M.N.-D.), the Huo Family Foundation to N.J.; the NSF Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, Division of Social and Economic Sciences (1559511 to J.S.L.); the US National Institutes of Health (RO1-CA-224545 to J.S.L.); Eesti Teadusagentuur–Estonian Research Council (PSG525 to A. Uusberg); the J. William Fulbright Program (to F. Azevedo); the HSE Basic Research Program (to D. Dubrov); Dominican University (a Faculty Development Grant to A. Krafnick); and the French National Research Agency Investissements d’avenir supporting PSF (ANR-15-IDEX-02 to H.I.); the Slovak Research and Development Agency (project no. APVV-20-0319 to M. Adamkovič); the programme FUTURE LEADER of Lorraine Université d’Excellence within the French National Research Agency Investissements d’avenir (ANR-15-IDEX-04-LUE to S.M.). Computation for this research was assisted by: the Harvard Business School compute cluster (HBSGrid); and the Open Science Grid. The Open Science Grid is supported by the National Science Foundation award 1148698 and the US Department of Energy’s Office of Science, as well as by the compute resources and assistance of the UW-Madison Center For High Throughput Computing (CHTC) in the Department of Computer Sciences. The CHTC is supported by UW-Madison, the Advanced Computing Initiative, the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation, the Wisconsin Institutes for Discovery, and the National Science Foundation, and is an active member of the Open Science Grid, which is supported by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science. We thank data science specialist S. Worthington and the research computing environment at the Institute for Quantitative Social Science, Harvard University and V. Ivanchuk for research assistantship. Our semi-representative panels were made possible by an in-kind purchase from the Leibniz Institute for Psychology (protocol https://doi.org/10.23668/psycharchives.3012); a special grant from the Association for Psychological Science and a fee waiver from Prolific. This work was supported by a grant from the American Psychological Society (granted to the PSA). Further financial support was provided by the PSA and a special crowdfunding campaign initiated by the PSA. We thank Amazon Web Services for help with server needs, the Leibniz Institute for Psychology (ZPID) for help with data collection via the organization and implementation of semi-representative panels, Prolific Inc. for offering discounted recruitment, and Harvard University’s Institute for Quantitative Social Sciences for statistical consulting. Finally, this research was supported by resources from the Open Science Grid, which is supported by National Science Foundation award 1148698, and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science. Beyond those roles already acknowledged, the funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.

Keywords

  • Adult
  • COVID-19/psychology
  • Emotional Regulation
  • Emotions
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'A multi-country test of brief reappraisal interventions on emotions during the COVID-19 pandemic'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this