A modified model of pharmacists' job stress: The role of organizational, extra-role, and individual factors on work-related outcomes

Caroline A. Gaither, Abir A. Kahaleh, William R. Doucette, David A. Mott, Craig A. Pederson, Jon C. Schommer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Scopus citations


Background: Understanding the effects of job stress continues to be a concern for health-care providers as workload and personnel needs increase. Objective: The overall objective of this study was to test a direct effects model of job stress that examines the characteristics of the organizational environment (interpersonal interactions, environmental aspects, the level of compensation and advancement, role stress, and availability of alternative jobs); extra-role factors (work-home conflict); job stress; individual factors (career commitment); and the work-related psychological outcomes of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job turnover intention. Methods: A cross-sectional mail survey was sent to a nationwide random sample of 4895 licensed pharmacists in the United States. Previously validated summated Likert-type scales measured each of the study variables. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the final model. Results: A response rate of 46% was achieved. Psychometric analyses indicated acceptable reliability and validity. The study model fit the data well (CFI [comparative fit index] = 0.90, RMSEA [root mean square error of approximation] = 0.05). Organizational factors in the form of role overload (standardized β = 0.45) and conflict (0.31) and ease of finding a job with better interpersonal characteristics (0.26) had the largest effects on job stress. Interpersonal characteristics were also one of the strongest predictors of job satisfaction (-0.61) and organizational commitment (-0.70). Work-home conflict directly affected job turnover intention (0.11) and career commitment (-0.16). Other significant, but sometimes, opposite direct effects were found. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment directly affected job turnover intention. Conclusions: Given the increased demand for pharmacy services, health-care organizations will benefit from increasing positive and reducing negative work outcomes. Increased focus on enhancing interpersonal interactions, developing commitment to the profession, and greater consideration of nonwork factors could help pharmacists better manage their work environments. Future research should continue to refine these models to further enhance our understanding of the effects of job stress in the health professional workplace.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)231-243
Number of pages13
JournalResearch in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1 2008


  • Interpersonal inter actions
  • Job satisfaction
  • Job stress
  • Job turn over intention
  • Organizations
  • Work-home conflict

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