A mm-Wave Signal Generation and Background Phase Alignment Technique for Scalable Arrays

Ruixing He, Yahya Tousi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This work presents a mm-wave signal generation method that provides background phase tuning and self-alignment between adjacent sources. This technique is based on direct monitoring of the mm-wave signal and provides phase tuning through a baseband feedback loop. We present the theory of the concept, provide the design methodology, and validate the proposed method with a two-element prototype in a 65-nm CMOS process. The prototype has a chip area of 1.3 mm <inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$\times$</tex-math> </inline-formula> 2 mm and consumes a total dc power of 258 mW. Chip measurements demonstrate a phase tuning range of 140<inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$^{\circ}$</tex-math> </inline-formula> at 35 GHz with 20<inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$^{\circ}$</tex-math> </inline-formula>/step and 3.5<inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$^{\circ}$</tex-math> </inline-formula> of rms phase error. The measured phase switching time is 20 ns. The measured phase noise at 1-MHz offset is below <inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$-$</tex-math> </inline-formula>117 dBc/Hz across phase settings, and the accumulated jitter is 86 fs. These results are consistent with theory and simulation. This work provides a phase alignment technique for large-scale mm-wave phased arrays.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:


  • Detectors
  • Distribution network
  • Frequency measurement
  • mm-wave
  • phase control
  • Phase frequency detectors
  • phased array
  • Phased arrays
  • Power transmission lines
  • Resonant frequency
  • scalable
  • Transmission line measurements


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