A meta-analytic perspective on sex equity in the classroom

Susanne M. Jones, Kathryn Dindia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

112 Scopus citations


This meta-analysis examines patterns of sex differences in teacher-initiated teacher-student interactions. While extensive research has examined factors that influence student evaluations of effective and ineffective teachers, this study examines whether teacher-initiated interactions with students, such as praising or blaming, vary as a function of student sex. After a careful examination of 127 empirical studies, 32 studies were retained for the meta-analysis. The studies were coded for positive, negative, and total interactions. The results suggest that teachers initiate more overall interactions and more negative interactions, but not more positive interactions, with male students than with female students.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)443-471
Number of pages29
JournalReview of Educational Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2004


  • Classroom interaction
  • Classroom management
  • Gender differences
  • Sex differences
  • Sex equity
  • Student-teacher interactions
  • Teacher-initiated interactions
  • Teacher-student interactions


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