Background: Pneumonia causes an enormous burden of childhood disease globally, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Pneumococcus is the most common bacterial aetiology of pneumonia; however, antimicrobials are limited and may not adequately address the local epidemiology of the region. Aim: To undertake a review and meta-analysis of pneumonia studies in sub-Saharan Africa to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in childhood pneumonia. Methods: Articles published in PubMed and Google between 2006 and 2016 which evaluated antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of pneumococcal pneumonia in children in sub-Saharan Africa were identified. The source of specimens, pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility data were extracted. Pooled analysis of susceptible isolates was conducted using random effects models. Results: Children from 15 studies and 1634 isolates were included in the meta-analysis. In cases of childhood pneumonia, the mean overall proportion of penicillin susceptibility from invasive specimens of Streptococcus pneumoniae was 85.7% (95% CI 80.1–91.3), and of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was 21.0% (95% CI 5.1–36.9). Compared with all S. pneumoniae specimens, penicillin susceptibility was 68.6% (95% CI 59.6–77.5) and that of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was 26.3% (95% CI 14.1–38.6). Conclusions: A high level of heterogeneity was detected, reflecting the paucity of data available. The establishment of national and regional diagnostic platforms to monitor antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for pneumonia as well as other invasive diseases will provide data with which to assess the relevance and adaptation of antimicrobial prescribing recommendations.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation?[grant number OPP1034619].
© 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
- Antimicrobial resistance
- clinical trials
- lower respiratory tract infection
- sub-Saharan Africa