A material-sparing simplified buoyancy method for determining the true density of solids

Merrill Goldenberg, Gerrit W Vreeman, David J. Sun, Mackenzie Moffit, May Li, Marina Zernik, Saivee Ahuja, Yumin Kim, Dillon Semin, Changquan Calvin Sun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


True density is an important physical property of powdered materials, especially in the context of powder compaction. Currently available methods for true density determination either require a significant amount of materials or are laborious. Hence, a material-sparing and efficient method for true density determination is of value. In this work, we detail a simplified buoyancy-based method capable of fast determination of true density with accuracy comparable to helium pycnometry. This miniaturized method only uses a few milligrams of a powder with data collection process expedited by centrifugation in a laboratory centrifuge. This method can be easily adapted in a laboratory since determination of true density only requires a balance, a micropipette, a laboratory centrifuge, and standard stock liquids of low and high densities. Hence, it is a useful addition to the materials characterization tool kit critical for pharmaceutical formulation development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number122694
JournalInternational journal of pharmaceutics
StatePublished - Mar 25 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding from the National Science Foundation through grant number IIP- 1919037 is gratefully acknowledged for partially supporting G.V. Assistance from Carter Supple for data collection is also appreciated.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier B.V.


  • Buoyancy
  • Crystal
  • Material-sparing
  • Polymer
  • True density

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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