A Machine Learning Approach to Improving Timing Consistency between Global Route and Detailed Route

Vidya A. Chhabria, Wenjing Jiang, Andrew B. Kahng, Sachin S. Sapatnekar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Due to the unavailability of routing information in design stages prior to detailed routing (DR), the tasks of timing prediction and optimization pose major challenges. Inaccurate timing prediction wastes design effort, hurts circuit performance, and may lead to design failure. This work focuses on timing prediction after clock tree synthesis and placement legalization, which is the earliest opportunity to time and optimize a "complete"netlist. The article first documents that having "oracle knowledge"of the final post-DR parasitics enables post-global routing (GR) optimization to produce improved final timing outcomes. To bridge the gap between GR-based parasitic and timing estimation and post-DR results during post-GR optimization, machine learning (ML)-based models are proposed, including the use of features for macro blockages for accurate predictions for designs with macros. Based on a set of experimental evaluations, it is demonstrated that these models show higher accuracy than GR-based timing estimation. When used during post-GR optimization, the ML-based models show demonstrable improvements in post-DR circuit performance. The methodology is applied to two different tool flows - OpenROAD and a commercial tool flow - and results on an open-source 45nm bulk and a commercial 12nm FinFET enablement show improvements in post-DR timing slack metrics without increasing congestion. The models are demonstrated to be generalizable to designs generated under different clock period constraints and are robust to training data with small levels of noise.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number18
JournalACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 18 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Association for Computing Machinery. All rights reserved.


  • Additional Key Words and Phrasesmachine learning
  • static timing analysis
  • timing optimization


Dive into the research topics of 'A Machine Learning Approach to Improving Timing Consistency between Global Route and Detailed Route'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this