A latent class analysis of heavy substance use in Young adulthood and impacts on physical, cognitive, and mental health outcomes in middle age

Megan E. Patrick, Patricia A. Berglund, Spruha Joshi, Bethany C. Bray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: This study examines whether longitudinal patterns of persistent or experimental heavy substance use across young adulthood were associated with physical and mental health in midlife. Methods: Data (N = 21,347) from Monitoring the Future from adolescence (age 18) to midlife (age 40) were used. Repeated measures latent class analysis modeled patterns of patterns of cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs across young adulthood (ages 18–30). Latent classes were then used as predictors of physical health problems, cognitive problems, self-rated health, and psychological problems in midlife (age 40), while controlling for sociodemographic variables (i.e., gender, race/ethnicity, parental education). Results: Identified classes were “Extreme Heavy Users” (3.9%), “Early Young Adult Users” (8.9%), “Cigarette Smokers” (9.2%), “All But Cigarette Smokers” (5.0%), “Frequent Alcohol Bingers” (10.4%), and “Not-Heavy Users” (62.6%). Extreme Heavy Users, Early Young Adult Users, and Cigarette Smokers had significantly poorer overall health based on a number of physical conditions and self-rated health. Extreme Heavy Users, Early Young Adult Users, Cigarette Smokers, and All But Cigarette Smokers had more cognitive problems than other classes. Extreme Heavy Users, Early Young Adult Users, Cigarette Smokers, and All But Cigarette Smokers were more likely to see a health professional for a psychological problem. Conclusions: Patterns of heavy substance use were associated with health across decades. Regular cigarette smokers and heavy users across substances and ages had the worst health in midlife, although even those with time-limited use during young adulthood were at risk for later physical and cognitive health problems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number108018
JournalDrug and alcohol dependence
Volume212
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by awards from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (R01-DA037902 to M. Patrick for manuscript preparation; R01-DA001411 and R01-DA016575 to L. Johnston, R. Miech, and J. Schulenberg for data collection and manuscript preparation; P50-DA039838 to L.M. Collins for manuscript preparation). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute on Drug Abuse or the National Institutes of Health.

Funding Information:
This research was supported by awards from the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( R01-DA037902 to M. Patrick for manuscript preparation; R01-DA001411 and R01-DA016575 to L. Johnston, R. Miech, and J. Schulenberg for data collection and manuscript preparation; P50-DA039838 to L.M. Collins for manuscript preparation). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute on Drug Abuse or the National Institutes of Health.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier B.V.

Keywords

  • Distal outcome
  • Health outcomes
  • Heavy substance use
  • Latent class analysis
  • Middle age
  • Young adulthood

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

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