A hydrogel-based implantable micromachined transponder for wireless glucose measurement

Ming Lei, Antonio Baldi, Eric Nuxoll, Ronald A. Siegel, Babak Ziaie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

86 Scopus citations


In this paper, we report on the design and characterization of a new hydrogel-based implantable wireless glucose sensor. The basic device structure is a passive [inductor/capacitor (LC)] micromachined resonator coupled to a stimuli-sensitive hydrogel, which is confined between a stiff nanoporous membrane and a thin glass diaphragm. As glucose molecules pass through the nanoporous membrane, the hydrogel swells and deflects the flexible glass diaphragm, which is the movable plate of the variable capacitor in the totally integrated passive LC resonator. The corresponding change in resonant frequency can be remotely detected. A glucose-sensitive phenylboronic acid-based hydrogel was loaded into the microtransponder, and its sensitivity and time response were measured. Prior to hydrogel loading, the sensitivity of the pressure sensor to applied air pressure was measured to be -222 kHz/kPa over the frequency range 51 → 42 MHz. The sensor showed a sensitivity of -34.3 kHz/mM over the glucose concentration range 0-20 mM (at pH 7.4), and a response time of 90 min. The dynamic response, although unacceptable at such values, can be easily improved by decreasing the hydrogel thickness and reducing the sensor and porous membrane thicknesses. The transponder's overall dimensions were 5 × 5 × 0.8 mm3, small enough for subcutaneous implantation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)112-122
Number of pages11
JournalDiabetes Technology and Therapeutics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2006


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