A high-resolution (1 marker/700 kb) physically ordered radiation hybrid (RH) and comparative map of 122 loci on equine homologs of human Chromosome 19 (HSA19) shows a variant evolution of these segments in equids/Perissodactyls compared with other mammals. The segments include parts of both the long and the short arm of horse Chromosome 7 (ECA7), the proximal part of ECA21, and the entire short arm of ECA10. The map includes 93 new markers, of which 89 (64 gene-specific and 25 microsatellite) were genotyped on a 5000-rad horse × hamster RH panel, and 4 were mapped exclusively by FISH. The orientation and alignment of the map was strengthened by 21 new FISH localizations, of which 15 represent genes. The approximately sevenfold-improved map resolution attained in this study will prove extremely useful for candidate gene discovery in the targeted equine chromosomal regions. The highlight of the comparative map is the fine definition of homology between the four equine chromosomal segments and corresponding HSA19 regions specified by physical coordinates (bp) in the human genome sequence. Of particular interest are the regions on ECA7 and ECA21 that correspond to the short arm of HSA19-a genomic rearrangement discovered to date only in equids/Perissodactyls as evidenced through comparative Zoo-FISH analysis of the evolution ofancestral HSA19 segments in eight mammalian orders involving about 50 species.