A high-power and scalable 2-D phased array for terahertz CMOS integrated systems

Yahya Tousi, Ehsan Afshari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

73 Scopus citations


This work introduces a 2-D phased array architecture that is suitable for high power radiation at mm-Wave and Terahertz frequencies. We address the challenge of signal generation above the cut-off frequency of transistors by presenting a radiation method based on the collective performance of a large number of synchronized sources. As theory shows, both frequency locking/tuning and beam steering can be independently achieved by manipulating the local coupling between the nearest neighbors. This control method results in a dynamical network that is insensitive to array dimensions and is scalable to the point that can achieve a level of output power and spectral purity beyond the reach of conventional sources. To demonstrate the concept, we implement a 4×4 version of this phased array at 340 GHz using a 65 nm bulk CMOS process. The paper presents the design and implementation of the oscillators, couplings and the integrated antennas. The measured results at 338 GHz reveal a peak equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) of +17.1 dBm and a phase noise of -93 dBc/Hz at the 1 MHz offset frequency. This chip presents the first fully integrated terahertz phased array on silicon. Furthermore, the output power is higher than any lens-less silicon-based source above 200 GHz and the phase noise is lower than all silicon radiating sources above 100 GHz.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6991611
Pages (from-to)597-609
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 IEEE.


  • CMOS
  • coupled oscillators
  • distributed systems
  • phased array
  • radiator
  • scaling
  • terahertz


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