Horizontally transmitted mosquito-borne viruses enter the midgut with a blood meal then disseminate to infect the salivary glands. En route to the salivary glands, these viruses encounter the plasma (haemolymph) and blood cells (haemocytes). Haemocytes respond to a variety of micro-organisms, but their role in virus replication and dissemination has not been described. To look for a potential haemocyte tropism for an arbovirus, a Sindbis virus was injected intrathoracically into four species of mosquito. Virus infects haemocytes as early as 6 h post injection (p.i.) and infection was evident in these cells for as long as 4 days p.i. More than 90% of haemocytes were infected, most often the phagocytic granulocytes. Virus titres in the haemolymph increased from 24 h p.i. through 60 h p.i. Similar results were found when Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were injected with orally infectious Sindbis. These data prove that an arbovirus infects, and replicates in, haemocytes.