The genetic differentiation of populations in response to local selection pressures has long been studied by evolutionary biologists, but key details about the process remain obscure. How rapidly can local adaptation evolve, how extensive is the process across the genome, and how strong are the opposing forces of natural selection and gene flow? Here, we combine direct measurement of survival and reproduction with whole-genome genotyping of a plant species (Mimulus guttatus) that has recently invaded a novel habitat (the Quarry population). We renovate the classic selection component method to accommodate genomic data and observe selection at SNPs throughout the genome. SNPs showing viability selection in Quarry exhibit elevated divergence from neighboring populations relative to neutral SNPs. We also find that nonsignificant SNPs exhibit a subtle, but still significant, change in allele frequency toward neighboring populations, a predicted effect of gene flow. Given that the Quarry population is most probably only 30-40 generations old, the alleles conferring local advantage are almost certainly older than the population itself. Thus, local adaptation owes to the recruitment of standing genetic variation.