A genome scan was performed for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (LDL-C) in white subjects who were ascertained through the NHLBI Family Heart Study (FHS). The NIH Mammalian Genotyping Service (Marshfield, Wis.) genotyped 401 autosomal markers spaced at approximate 10-cM intervals. Additional FHS families were genotyped by the FHS Molecular Laboratory at the University of Utah for 243 markers; 645 subjects were typed in both laboratories so that a combined map of the 644 markers from the two screening sets (average distance of 5.46 cM) could be produced. Analyses were done on 2,799 genotyped subjects in 500 families where at least two genotyped persons in the family had measured LDL-C levels (average number of genotyped family members=5.95). The variance components method was used as implemented in GeneHunter (Kruglyak et al. 1996). Prior to analysis, each phenotype was adjusted, within sex, for age, age squared, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, alcohol, smoking, medication status for diabetes and hypertension, estrogen use, and field center location. Linkage analyses were performed, first excluding 305 subjects on lipid-lowering medications, then again including the data from these subjects. The highest peak was on chromosome 11 at 56.3-56.4 cM, with a maximum lod score of 3.72. Two genome scans of lipid traits in other populations have found peaks in this region. Other scores at or above 1.9 occurred on chromosomes 5 (lod=1.89 at 1.6 cM), 10 (lod=2.47 at 127.1 cM), 17 (lod=2.33 at 116.3 cM), and 21 (lod=2.74 at 45.2 cM).
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Acknowledgments Support was provided in part by the NHLBI cooperative agreement grants U01HL56563, U01 HL56564, U01 HL56565, U01 HL56566, U01 HL56567, U01 HL56568, and U01 HL56569. This paper is presented on behalf of the investigators of the NHLBI Family Heart Study. Participating institutions and principal staff of the study are as follows: Forsyth County/University of North Carolina/Wake Forest University: Gerardo Heiss, Stephen Rich, Greg Evans; James Pankow; H.A. Tyroler, Jeannette T. Bensen, Catherine Paton, Delilah Posey, and Amy Haire; University of Minnesota Field Center: Donna K. Arnett, Aaron R. Folsom, Larry Atwood, James Peacock, and Greg Feitl; Boston University/Framingham Field Center: R. Curtis Ellison, Richard H. Myers, Yuqing Zhang, Andrew G. Bostom, Luc Djoussé, Jemma B. Wilk, and Greta Lee Splansky; University of Utah Field Center: Steven C. Hunt, Roger R. Williams (deceased), Paul N. Hopkins, Hilary Coon and Jan Skuppin; Coordinating Center, Washington University, St. Louis: Michael A. Province, D.C. Rao, Ingrid B. Borecki, Yuling Hong, Mary Feitosa, Jeanne Cashman, and Avril Adelman; Central Biochemistry Laboratory, University of Minnesota: John H. Eckfeldt, Catherine Leiendecker–Foster, Michael Y. Tsai, and Greg Rynders; Central Molecular Laboratory, University of Utah: Mark F. Leppert, Jean–Marc Lalouel, Tena Varvil, Lisa Baird, Tami Elsner, Kristen Gruenthal, Chris Pappas, Craig Barnitz; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute – Project Office: Phyliss Sholinsky, Millicent Higgins (retired), Jacob Keller (retired), Sarah Knox, and Lorraine Silsbee. We thank the subjects participating in this study.