The Hasse–Witt matrix of a hypersurface in Pn over a finite field of characteristic p gives essentially complete mod p information about the zeta function of the hypersurface. But if the degree d of the hypersurface is ≤n, the zeta function is trivial mod p and the Hasse–Witt matrix is zero-by-zero. We generalize a classical formula for the Hasse–Witt matrix to obtain a matrix that gives a nontrivial congruence for the zeta function for all d. We also describe the differential equations satisfied by this matrix and prove that it is generically invertible.
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- Hasse–Witt matrix
- Zeta function