A Framework to Advance Biomarker Development in the Diagnosis, Outcome Prediction, and Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury

Elisabeth A. Wilde, Ina Beate Wanner, Kimbra Kenney, Jessica Gill, James R. Stone, Seth Disner, Caroline Schnakers, Retsina Meyer, Eric M. Prager, Magali Haas, Andreas Jeromin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Multi-modal biomarkers (e.g., imaging, blood-based, physiological) of unique traumatic brain injury (TBI) endophenotypes are necessary to guide the development of personalized and targeted therapies for TBI. Optimal biomarkers will be specific, sensitive, rapidly and easily accessed, minimally invasive, cost effective, and bidirectionally translatable for clinical and research use. For both uses, understanding how TBI biomarkers change over time is critical to reliably identify appropriate time windows for an intervention as the injury evolves. Biomarkers that enable researchers and clinicians to identify cellular injury and monitor clinical improvement, inflection, arrest, or deterioration in a patient's clinical trajectory are needed for precision healthcare. Prognostic biomarkers that reliably predict outcomes and recovery windows to assess neurodegenerative change and guide decisions for return to play or duty are also important. TBI biomarkers that fill these needs will transform clinical practice and could reduce the patient's risk for long-Term symptoms and lasting deficits. This article summarizes biomarkers currently under investigation and outlines necessary steps to achieve short-and long-Term goals, including how biomarkers can advance TBI treatment and improve care for patients with TBI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)436-457
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of neurotrauma
Issue number7-8
StatePublished - Apr 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Dr. Meyer has received grants from the National Institute on Drug Abuse; has stock in Resilience Therapeutics Holdings, PYM (Prepare Your Mind), Inc, and Delix Therapeutics, Inc; serves on an advisory board of Concerto Biosciences, Inc and Cogentis Therapeutics, Inc; and is on the board of directors of Museum of Science (Boston). The other authors have nothing to disclose.

Funding Information:
This work would not have been possible without the financial support provided by Cohen Veterans Bioscience through grant COH-0003 from Steven A. Cohen. Cohen Veterans Bioscience conceptualized and funded the Brain Trauma Blueprint. Additional information can be found at www.braintraumablueprint.org.

Publisher Copyright:
© Elisabeth A. Wilde et al., 2022; Published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2022.


  • biomarkers
  • diagnostic biomarkers
  • neuroimaging
  • neurophysiology, prognostic biomarkers
  • traumatic brain injury

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Review
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.


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