A four-dimensional model of Asian American stereotypes

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The content of the Asian American model minority stereotype is important for understanding how Asian American individuals are perceived. Existing theories about stereotype content may not capture the unique historical and cultural context that could affect perceptions of Asian American individuals. We have identified a more differentiated underlying structure with four dimensions—warmth, competence, self-centeredness, and submissiveness—that differ in their rated typicality and desirability for Asian and White Americans. We then developed the 16-item Asian American Stereotypes Scale to measure perceptions of Asian Americans on these four dimensions. Ratings on the different dimensions predict unique variance in attitudes toward Asian Americans and other minority groups, contact with Asians or Asian Americans, perceptions of size of the Asian American population, and system justification. The four-dimensional model and the Asian American Stereotypes Scale allow us to predict and examine the unique impacts of Asian American stereotypes in a way that differs from more general models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1262-1283
Number of pages22
JournalGroup Processes and Intergroup Relations
Issue number8
StatePublished - Dec 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank Chris Federico for his comments on an earlier draft of this paper and for his feedback on the data analytic approach. The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2020.


  • Asian American Stereotypes Scale (AAS)
  • Asian American stereotypes
  • four-dimensional model
  • model minority stereotype


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