A flowchart for selecting an ointment base

Jeannine M. Conway, Michael C. Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objectives. To improve students' skills in selecting appropriate ointment bases through the development and implementation of a flowchart. Design. A flowchart was designed to help students select the appropriate base for an ointment. Students used the flowchart throughout the semester in both dry and wet laboratory activities. At the end of the semester, students completed a dry laboratory practical that required them to select an appropriate ointment base and levigating agent. Assessment. Student performance data from the year prior to implementation was compared to data for 2 years after implementation. Calculation, procedure, and labeling errors also were compared. Prior to implementation of the flowchart, 51 of 101 students selected the correct base. After implementation, 169 of 212 students selected the correct base (p<0.001). Calculation, procedure, and labeling errors were not significantly different. Conclusion. Use of a flowchart to select an ointment base improved student performance when used in the context of a dry laboratory assignment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number16
JournalAmerican journal of pharmaceutical education
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2014

Bibliographical note

Copyright 2019 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Compounding
  • Decision-making flowchart
  • Nonsterile compounding
  • Ointment


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