A Facility Location and Allocation Model for Cooperative Fire Services

Jinke Ming, Jean Philippe P. Richard, Jiping Zhu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Designing efficient urban fire service systems is of crucial importance as prompt responses to emergencies and accidents can drastically reduce property loss and mortality. To achieve these goals, holistic location-allocation models for cooperative fire services must consider multiple factors, such as fire station size, vehicle quantity, vehicle type, response time, service reliability, and traffic condition. This paper proposes a mixed-integer linear program model that takes these factors into account by using two coverage metrics: one related to vehicle coverage, indicating service reliability, and the other related to time coverage, describing service accessibility. Integrating these two metrics, a full or partial time and vehicle coverage (FPTVC) standard is obtained that characterizes the efficiency of response of cooperative fire services. A case study and multiple sensitivity analyses based on historical data from Hefei (China) are performed to demonstrate the relationships between vehicle coverage proportion, time coverage rate, fire station number, fire engine quantity, FPTVC, and total budget. The solutions obtained are further analyzed using GIS-based maps, which validate that the proposed model can help develop enhanced fire service systems designs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number9462133
Pages (from-to)90908-90918
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by the National Key Research and Development Plan under Grant 2020YFC1522805, in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant NSFC 51936011, and in part by the Special Foundation for Fundamental Research Expenses of Central Universities under Grant WK2320000040.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2013 IEEE.


  • Cooperative fire services
  • fire station
  • time coverage
  • vehicle coverage


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