Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-doped graphene) produced from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is an extremely attractive material for energy storage due to the high specific capacitance and low cost. The as-prepared samples are derived from DDGS, an inexpensive byproduct from fermentation processed optimized for first generation bio-fuel production. The scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy results demonstrate the 700 °C treated sample (N-700) displays crumpled nanosheets and few-layer graphene nanostructure. XRD and Raman spectroscopy indicate N-700 presents the distinctive graphene diffraction peaks. The XPS of N-700 shows the N 1s can be split into pyrrolic-N and pyridinic-N. The cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were measured based on N-700. A high specific capacitance of 324 F g-1, and a relatively low inner resistance of 0.1 ω were obtained.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research is funded by following projects: “ Development of high value carbon based adsorbents from thermochemically produced biochar ” 2011-67009-20030 USDA-NIFA Agriculture and Food Research Initiative Sustainable Bioenergy Program funded Micropore analyzer, electrochemical analyzer and instruments for preparing graphene materials. NSF EpsCor Dakota BioCon center supported Dr. Hong Jin for his PhD study and XPS analysis. The TEM test was performed by Dr. Masahiro Kawasaki in JEOL Inc.
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- N-doped graphene
- Pore structure
- Surface area