A critical review of the literature on NLD as a developmental disorder

Jodene Goldenring Fine, Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Jesse C. Bledsoe, Kayla A. Musielak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


The extant research on nonverbal learning disability (NLD) was analyzed in this review. Studies were defined for use in the review as those that appeared in a peer-reviewed journal and included participants characterized as having NLD. Each study also needed to provide a statistical analysis of dependent variables. An a priori system was used to evaluate the quality of the research. Of the 88 publications found, 32 met criteria for inclusion in the review, with 6 meeting full criteria as strong studies. The diagnostic criteria used and the research findings are briefly discussed, as are proposed guidelines for future research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)190-223
Number of pages34
JournalChild Neuropsychology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was partially funded by an anonymous foundation as well as funding from the Departments of Counseling, Educational Psychology, and Special Education, Psychology and Psychiatry at Michigan State University.


  • Asperger's Disorder
  • Nonverbal learning disability
  • Review


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