A critical gel fluid with high extensibility: The rheology of chewing gum

Luca Martinetti, Alexander M. Mannion, William E. Voje, Renxuan Xie, Randy H. Ewoldt, Leslie D. Morgret, Frank S. Bates, Christopher W. Macosko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Chewing gum provides an excellent everyday example of viscoelastic behavior, and understanding its rheological properties is important for application purposes. Here, we compare the rheological behavior of selected commercial chewing gums and bubble gums. Small amplitude oscillatory shear, shear creep, and steady shear demonstrated that both chewing and bubble gums behave like power-law critical gels in the linear regime. Nonlinear viscoelastic behavior was investigated using large amplitude oscillatory shear, shear creep, and start-up flows (in shear and uniaxial extension). Bubble gums showed more pronounced strain hardening and greater stresses to break in start-up of steady uniaxial extension than chewing gums. We argue that this combination of rheological signatures is sufficient to provide a new robust definition of chewing gum that is independent of specific molecular composition. There are potentially many different formulations and design routes that can achieve this distinctive rheological fingerprint.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)821-838
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Rheology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2014


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