Two previous postmortem studies reported an increased thickness of the corpus callosum in schizophrenic patients compared to psychiatric controls. We report an in vivo study of the corpus callosum in schizophrenic patients (n = 38) and healthy controls (n = 41) using magnetic resonance (MR) brain imaging. A significant increase in mean callosal thickness was found in the middle and anterior, but not the posterior, parts of the callosal body. However, when the patients and controls were compared by gender and handedness schizophrenic men were found not to differ from control men in callosal thickness, regardless of handedness, whereas schizophrenic women were found to have a highly significant increase in callosal middle and anterior thickness compared to control women The data suggest that increased callosal thickness in schizophrenia is gender related, a factor that is not considered by postmortem studies. The implications of increased callosal dimensions in female schizophrenics are discussed.