A controlled experimental model of revision implants: Part I. Development

Joan E Bechtold, V. Kubic, K. Søballe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations

Abstract

We investigated the roles of particulate matter with unstable implant, in engendering the aggressive tissue response associated with implant loosening in humans. This study serves as a basis for establishing a controlled animal model to reproduce the conditions present after implant loosening. The model includes a 6 mm polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cylinder concentrically pistoning 500 μm under load in a 0.75-mm circumferential gap, inserted into canine medial femoral condyles for 8 weeks. We evaluated two size concentrations of polyethylene: type A particulate polyethylene (0.5-12 μm), and type B particulate polyethylene (0.5-50 μm; 85% < 12 μm). The following three treatment groups were investigated in 28 unstable implants in 14 dogs: (1) without polyethylene (control), (2) with type A polyethylene, and (3) with type B polyethylene. We found an aggressive periprosthetic membrane, similar to that seen at revision in humans, only in the unstable implant with polyethylene. The features of this membrane included macrophages with intracellular polyethylene, a dense fibrous membrane with a synovial-like lining layer, and a sclerotic neocortex. The size distribution of the polyethylene did not alter the tissue response. An unstable implant without polyethylene resulted in a benign, quiescent membrane with loose fibrous connective tissue. The model creates a revision cavity analogous to that seen in revision joint arthroplasty, and merits further studies of revision joint replacement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)642-649
Number of pages8
JournalActa Orthopaedica Scandinavica
Volume72
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2001

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