A consensus definition and core competencies for being an advocate for pharmacy

Andrew S. Bzowyckyj, Kristin K. Janke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


To develop a consensus definition for "advocacy for the profession of pharmacy" and core competencies for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) graduates to be effective advocates for the profession. A 3-round modified Delphi process was conducted using a panel of 9 experts. Participants revised a definition for "advocacy for the profession" and ultimately rated their agreement using a 5-point Likert scale. Competency statements were developed and subsequently rated for importance for being an advocate and importance to address in PharmD curricula. A consensus-derived definition was developed. Two competency statements achieved consensus for both measures of importance. Four competency statements achieved consensus for only 1 measure and another 4 did not reach consensus for either measure. A consensus-derived definition was developed describing advocacy for the profession of pharmacy and began laying the groundwork for the knowledge and skills necessary to be an effective advocate for the profession of pharmacy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 12 2013


  • Advocacy
  • Competencies
  • Delphi
  • Pharmacy

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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