A conceptual model of the sense of presence in virtual environments

Karl Erik Bystrom, Woodrow Barfield, Claudia Hendrix

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

141 Scopus citations


This paper proposes a model of interaction in virtual environments which we term the immersion, presence, performance (IPP) model. This model is based on previous models of immersion and presence proposed by Barfield and colleagues and Slater and colleagues. The IPP model describes the authors' current conceptualization of the effects of display technology, task demands, and attentional resource allocation on immersion, presence, and performance in virtual environments. The IPP model may be useful for developing a theoretical framework for research on presence and for interpreting the results of empirical studies on the sense of presence in virtual environments. The model may also be of interest to designers of virtual environments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)241-244
Number of pages4
JournalPresence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1999


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