A Conceptual Framework to Integrate Biodiversity, Ecosystem Function, and Ecosystem Service Models

Sarah R. Weiskopf, Bonnie J.E. Myers, Maria Isabel Arce-Plata, Julia L. Blanchard, Simon Ferrier, Elizabeth A. Fulton, Mike Harfoot, Forest Isbell, Justin A. Johnson, Akira S. Mori, Ensheng Weng, Zuzana V. Harmáčková, María Cecilia Londoño-Murcia, Brian W. Miller, Laura M. Pereira, Isabel M.D. Rosa

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Global biodiversity and ecosystem service models typically operate independently. Ecosystem service projections may therefore be overly optimistic because they do not always account for the role of biodiversity in maintaining ecological functions. We review models used in recent global model intercomparison projects and develop a novel model integration framework to more fully account for the role of biodiversity in ecosystem function, a key gap for linking biodiversity changes to ecosystem services. We propose two integration pathways. The first uses empirical data on biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships to bridge biodiversity and ecosystem function models and could currently be implemented globally for systems and taxa with sufficient data. We also propose a trait-based approach involving greater incorporation of biodiversity into ecosystem function models. Pursuing both approaches will provide greater insight into biodiversity and ecosystem services projections. Integrating biodiversity, ecosystem function, and ecosystem service modeling will enhance policy development to meet global sustainability goals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1062-1073
Number of pages12
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center under funding received from the National Science Foundation (grant no. DBI-1639145). A portion of this research was supported by the US Geological Survey National and North Central Climate Adaptation Science Centers. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the US government. We thank Toni Lyn Morelli and the journal reviewers for their helpful comments.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s).


  • biodiversity
  • biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships
  • ecosystem function
  • ecosystem services
  • modeling
  • sustainability
  • trait-based modeling

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Review


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