A conceptual framework for examining HRD and NHRD linkages and outcomes: Review of TVET literature

Meera Alagaraja, Pradeep Kotamraju, Sehoon Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Purpose - This paper aims to review technical vocational education and training (TVET) literature, identify different components of the TVET system and develop a conceptual framework that integrates human resource development (HRD) and national human resource development (NHRD) outcomes. The renewed focus on technical vocational education and training (TVET) is important for human resource development (HRD), as it expands current understanding of its role in economic development through workforce training. National human resource development (NHRD) perspectives recognize the role of TVET in linking regional and national economic development strategies. Furthermore, TVET’s focus on literacy education, poverty alleviation and inclusion of marginalized and vulnerable populations emphasizes social development outcomes that are critical for NHRD. Using this background, the integration of HRD and NHRD outcomes into one conceptual TVET framework for addressing workforce, economic and social development outcomes has been proposed.

Design/methodology/approach - A targeted literature review approach was used for exploring relevant research on TVET systems, identifying the components which support and/or inhibit its effectiveness and an integrative framework that connects education, workforce development, social development and economic development was developed.

Findings - Three major themes were identified. The first theme identifies nine sub-themes that make an effectiveTVETsystem.Theseareasfollows:nationalTVETpolicy,regionalTVETpolicy,training,participation, curriculum, coordination of stakeholder institutions, individual and institutional attitudes toward skill development, managing supply-demand mismatches and economic and social development outcomes. The second major theme underlines the increasing overlap and connection between workforce development, social development and economic development strategies. In the third and final finding, effective TVET systems are positioned as the linking pin connecting the four TVET components (skills, education, innovation and knowledge) to the strategic goals of workforce development, economic development and social development.

Originality/value - Integrating national and organizational-based HRD strategies is a unique focus and reflects the broader examination of the differences in the relationship between corporate HRD and more traditional TVET systems. It is argued that the role of TVET in social and workforce development at the regional and societal level cannot be ignored. HRD and NHRD outcomes were integrated by utilizing TVET as a framework for linking economic, social and workforce development strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)265-285
Number of pages21
JournalEuropean Journal of Training and Development
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 29 2014

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


  • Economic development strategy
  • HRD
  • NHRD
  • Social development strategy
  • TVET model
  • Workforce development strategy


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