Pain of the orofacial region is the primary complaint for which patients seek treatment. Of all the orofacial pain conditions, one condition that possess a significant global health problem is temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Patients with TMD typically frequently complaints of pain as a symptom. TMD can occur due to complex interplay between peripheral and central sensitization, endogenous modulatory pathways, and cortical processing. For diagnosis of TMD pain a descriptive history, clinical assessment, and imaging is needed. However, due to the complex nature of pain an additional step is needed to render a definitive TMD diagnosis. In this review we explicate the role of different biomarkers involved in painful TMD. In painful TMD conditions, the role of biomarkers is still elusive. We believe that the identification of biomarkers associated with painful TMD may stimulate researchers and clinician to understand the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of TMD and help them in developing newer methods for the diagnosis and management of TMD. Therefore, to understand the potential relationship of biomarkers, and painful TMD we categorize the biomarkers as molecular biomarkers, neuroimaging biomarkers and sensory biomarkers. In addition, we will briefly discuss pain genetics and the role of potential microRNA (miRNA) involved in TMD pain.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s).
- Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/complications
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article