A Comparison of the Vending Environment Among Three Rural Subtypes of Secondary Schools

Rebecca Kehm, Cynthia S. Davey, Martha Y. Kubik, Marilyn S. Nanney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to further explore the rural school food environment. This study assessed trends in prevalence of vending machines and vending items within and between Minnesota schools located in 3 rural subtypes: town/rural fringe, town/rural distant, and remote rural. Generalized estimating equation models were employed to analyze data from the 2006 through 2012 School Health Profiles Principal’s Surveys (Profiles). All 3 rural subtypes had a statistically significant decrease in the prevalence of low nutrient energy dense (LNED) vending items between 2006 and 2012, with the exception of sports drinks. However, different vending practices were observed between rural subtypes, with town/rural fringe schools providing more LNED vending options and experiencing less positive change over time compared to town/rural distant and remote rural schools. Differences in vending machine practices emerge when rural schools are subtyped.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)58-69
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Hunger and Environmental Nutrition
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, grant # 5R01-HD070738. Funding agencies played no role in the contents of this article. The contents of this article are solely the responsibility of the authors.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Taylor & Francis.


  • Rural schools
  • childhood obesity
  • nutrition policies


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