A Comparison of the Efficacy of Enema Solutions in Pediatric Emergency Department Patients

Julie Anderson, Ronald A. Furnival, Lei Zhang, Scott A. Lunos, Zujaja Sadiq, Jonathan R. Strutt, Rahul Kaila, Marissa A. Hendrickson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background: Children presenting to pediatric emergency departments (EDs) are frequently given enemas for relief of constipation symptoms; there is very little literature guiding solution selection. Objective: Our aim was to assess and compare the efficacy of the various enema solutions used in a pediatric ED, including the “pink lady,” a previously unreported compounded combination of docusate, magnesium citrate, mineral oil, and sodium phosphate. Methods: We identified all children who received any enema over a 5-year period in an urban, quaternary care pediatric ED for inclusion in the study via electronic record review. Physician investigators retrospectively reviewed routine visit documentation to confirm the type and dosage of enema and assess comorbidities, indications, efficacy, and side effects. Subjective descriptions of output were classified as none, small, medium, or large by reviewer consensus. Results: There were 768 records included. Median age was 6.2 years (interquartile range 3.3–10.3 years). Solutions used were sodium phosphate (n = 396), pink lady (n = 198), soap suds (n = 160), and other (n = 14). There was no significant difference in output by solution type (p = 0.88). Volume delivered was highest for pink lady, with no significant association between volume delivered and output (p = 0.48). Four percent of patients had side effects. Soap suds had a significantly higher rate of side effects (10.6%; p = 0.0003), primarily abdominal pain. Conclusions: There was no significant difference in reported stool output produced by sodium phosphate, soap suds, and pink lady enemas in children treated in an ED. Further study via randomized controlled trials would be beneficial in guiding selection of enema solution.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)461-468
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Emergency Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Elsevier Inc.


  • constipation
  • efficacy
  • enema
  • pink lady


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