Functional feeding categories for adult species of Calpinae are described. Structures associated with the proboscis were examined using exemplar species in fruit-piercing, blood-feeding, and tear-feeding species using both light microscopy and SEM methods. At least three genera currently placed in Calpini, and several others in related groups lack specialized piercing structures. The proboscis of the tear-feeding species, Hemiceratoides hieroglyphica, is equipped with specialized cuticular hooks not yet observed in other tear-feeding species. Tearing hooks moveable by blood pressure are restricted to Calpini species, and little additional variation within this taxon exists, suggesting proboscis morphology may not be strongly correlated with feeding behavior (e. g., fruit piercing vs. blood feeding). A glossary of terms and character codings for proboscis structures is provided, and morphologies for all included calpine taxa are described. We discuss the taxonomic significance of proboscis morphology in Calpinae and the evolutionary implications of their associated feeding behaviors. This survey indicates morphology provides powerful prediction, but not proof of lepidopteran adult food habits.
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- Lepidopteran mouthparts