We present the first genetic map of wild rice (Zizania palustris L., 2n=2x=30), a native aquatic grain of northern North America. This map is composed principally of previously mapped RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) genetic markers from rice (Oryza sativa 2n=2x=24). The map is important as a foundation for genetic and crop improvement studies as well as a reference for genome organization comparisons among species of Gramineae. A comparative mapping approach with rice is especially useful because wild rice is grouped in the same subfamily, Oryzoideae, and no other mapping comparison has yet been made within the subfamily. As rice is the reference point for mapping and gene cloning in cereals, establishing a consensus map within the subfamily identifies conserved and unique regions. The genomes of wild rice and rice differ in total DNA content (wild rice has twice that of rice) and the number of chromosome pairs (wild rice=15 versus rice=12). The wild rice linkage map reported herein consists of 121 RFLP markers on 16 linkage groups spanning 1805 cM. Two linkage groups consist of only two markers. Colinear markers were found representing all rice linkage groups except 12. The majority of rice loci mapped to colinearly arranged arrays in wild rice (92 of 118). Features of the map include duplication of portions of three rice linkage groups and three possible translocations. The map gives basic information on the composition of the wild rice genome and provides tools to assist in the domestication of this important food source.