A cohort study of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors after acute kidney injury among Veterans with diabetic kidney disease

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Abstract

Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) reduce the risk for several adverse outcomes among patients with diabetic kidney disease. Yet, optimal timing for SGLT2i after acute kidney injury (AKI) is uncertain, as are the providers responsible for post-AKI SGLT2i initiation. Using a retrospective cohort of United States Veterans with diabetes mellitus type 2 and proteinuria, we examined encounters by provider specialty before SGLT2i initiation and subsequent all-cause mortality after hospitalization with AKI, defined by a 50% or more rise in serum creatinine. Covariates included recovery, defined by return to a 110% or less of baseline creatinine, and time since AKI hospitalization. Among 21,330 eligible Veterans, 7,798 died (37%) and 6,562 received a SGLT2i (31%) over median follow-up of 2.1 years. Post-AKI SGLT2i use was associated with lower mortality risk [adjusted hazard ratio 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.58-0.68)]. Compared with neither SGLT2i use nor recovery, mortality risk was similar with recovery without SGLT2i use [0.97 (0.91-1.02)] but was lower without recovery prior to SGLT2i use [0.62 (0.55-0.71)] and with SGLT2i use after recovery [0.60 (0.54-0.67)]. Finally, the effect of SGLT2i was stable over time (P for time-interaction 0.19). Thus, we observed reduced mortality with SGLT2i use after AKI among Veterans with diabetic kidney disease whether started earlier or later or before or after observed recovery. Hence, patients with diabetic kidney disease who receive a SGLT2i earlier after AKI experience no significant harm impacting mortality and experience a lower mortality risk than those who do not.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)126-135
Number of pages10
JournalKidney international
Volume106
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 International Society of Nephrology

Keywords

  • acute kidney injury
  • diuretics
  • sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors

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