Using gene modification of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) to create persistent generation of multilineage immune effectors to target cancer cells directly is proposed. Gene-modified human HSC have been used to introduce genes to correct, prevent, or treat diseases. Concerns regarding malignant transformation, abnormal hematopoiesis, and autoimmunity exist, making the co-delivery of a suicide gene a necessary safety measure. Truncated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRt) was tested as a suicide gene system co-delivered with anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to human HSC. Third-generation self-inactivating lentiviral vectors were used to co-deliver an anti-CD19 CAR and EGFRt. In vitro, gene-modified HSC were differentiated into myeloid cells to allow transgene expression. An antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay was used, incubating target cells with leukocytes and monoclonal antibody cetuximab to determine the percentage of surviving cells. In vivo, gene-modified HSC were engrafted into NSG mice with subsequent treatment with intraperitoneal cetuximab. Persistence of gene-modified cells was assessed by flow cytometry, droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR), and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using 89Zr-Cetuximab. Cytotoxicity was significantly increased (p = 0.01) in target cells expressing EGFRt after incubation with leukocytes and cetuximab 1 μg/mL compared to EGFRt+ cells without cetuximab and non-transduced cells with or without cetuximab, at all effector:target ratios. Mice humanized with gene-modified HSC presented significant ablation of gene-modified cells after treatment (p = 0.002). Remaining gene-modified cells were close to background on flow cytometry and within two logs of decrease of vector copy numbers by ddPCR in mouse tissues. PET imaging confirmed ablation with a decrease of an average of 82.5% after cetuximab treatment. These results give proof of principle for CAR-modified HSC regulated by a suicide gene. Further studies are needed to enable clinical translation. Cetuximab ADCC of EGFRt-modified cells caused effective killing. Different ablation approaches, such as inducible caspase 9 or co-delivery of other inert cell markers, should also be evaluated.
- HSC, CAR, cancer immunotherapy, EGFR, cetuximab, gene therapy
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't