A case study of glucose levels during sleep using multilevel fast function on scalar regression inference

Renat Sergazinov, Andrew Leroux, Erjia Cui, Ciprian Crainiceanu, R. Nisha Aurora, Naresh M. Punjabi, Irina Gaynanova

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) are increasingly used to measure blood glucose levels and provide information about the treatment and management of diabetes. Our motivating study contains CGM data during sleep for 174 study participants with type II diabetes mellitus measured at a 5-min frequency for an average of 10 nights. We aim to quantify the effects of diabetes medications and sleep apnea severity on glucose levels. Statistically, this is an inference question about the association between scalar covariates and functional responses observed at multiple visits (sleep periods). However, many characteristics of the data make analyses difficult, including (1) nonstationary within-period patterns; (2) substantial between-period heterogeneity, non-Gaussianity, and outliers; and (3) large dimensionality due to the number of study participants, sleep periods, and time points. For our analyses, we evaluate and compare two methods: fast univariate inference (FUI) and functional additive mixed models (FAMMs). We extend FUI and introduce a new approach for testing the hypotheses of no effect and time invariance of the covariates. We also highlight areas for further methodological development for FAMM. Our study reveals that (1) biguanide medication and sleep apnea severity significantly affect glucose trajectories during sleep and (2) the estimated effects are time invariant.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3873-3882
Number of pages10
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Biometrics published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Biometric Society.


  • CGM
  • actigraphy
  • diabetes
  • sleep apnea
  • wearables


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