Recent critiques of internationalizotion process models question the wisdom of delaying internationalixation. Internationalizing late allows firms to assemble resources and gain experience but also allows inertia to develop. We resolve this tension by positing that internationalization has differing effects on firm survival and growth. These effects are moderated by organizational age, managerial experience, and resource fungibility. Our framework provides insights into the evolution of capabilities across borders and may be tested and built on by organization researchers.