A 28-GHz 32-Element TRX Phased-Array IC with Concurrent Dual-Polarized Operation and Orthogonal Phase and Gain Control for 5G Communications

Bodhisatwa Sadhu, Yahya Tousi, Joakim Hallin, Stefan Sahl, Scott K. Reynolds, Orjan Renstrom, Kristoffer Sjogren, Olov Haapalahti, Nadav Mazor, Bo Bokinge, Gustaf Weibull, Hakan Bengtsson, Anders Carlinger, Eric Westesson, Jan Erik Thillberg, Leonard Rexberg, Mark Yeck, Xiaoxiong Gu, Mark Ferriss, Duixian LiuDaniel Friedman, Alberto Valdes-Garcia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

181 Scopus citations

Abstract

This paper presents the first reported 28-GHz phased-array IC for 5G communications. Implemented in 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS, the IC includes 32 TRX elements and features concurrent independent beams in two polarizations in either TX or RX operation. Circuit techniques to enable precise beam steering, orthogonal phase and amplitude control at each front end, and independent tapering and beam steering at the array level are presented. A TX/RX switch design is introduced which minimizes TX path loss resulting in 13.5 dBm/16 dBm Op1dB/Psat per front end with >20% peak power added efficiency of the power amplifier (including switch and off-mode LNA) while maintaining a 6 dB noise figure in the low noise amplifier (including switch and off-mode PA). Comprehensive on-wafer measurement results for the IC across multiple samples and temperature variation are presented. A package with four ICs and 64 dual-polarized antennas provides eight 16-element or two 64-element concurrent beams with 1.4°/step beam steering (<0.6° rms error) across a ±50° steering range without requiring calibration. A maximum saturated effective isotropic radiated power of 54 dBm is measured in the broadside direction for each polarization. Tapering control without requiring calibration achieves up to 20-dB sidelobe rejection without affecting the main lobe direction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8110833
Pages (from-to)3373-3391
Number of pages19
JournalIEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Volume52
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 1966-2012 IEEE.

Copyright:
Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • 28 GHz
  • 5G
  • SiGe
  • antenna array
  • base station
  • beamforming
  • calibration
  • cellular
  • dual polarization
  • effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP)
  • hardware
  • millimeter wave
  • mobile
  • multi-in multi-out
  • orthogonal phase and gain
  • phased array
  • picocell
  • sidelobe
  • silicon
  • switch
  • tapering
  • transceiver

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