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2017

ABO blood group is associated with peripheral arterial disease in African Americans: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

Pike, M. M., Larson, N. B., Wassel, C. L., Cohoon, K. P., Tsai, M. Y., Pankow, J. S., Hanson, N. Q., Decker, P. A., Berardi, C., Alexander, K. S., Cushman, M., Zakai, N. A. & Bielinski, S. J., May 1 2017, In : Thrombosis Research. 153, p. 1-6 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Peripheral Arterial Disease
Blood Group Antigens
African Americans
Ankle Brachial Index
Atherosclerosis
61 Citations

An Expanded Genome-Wide Association Study of Type 2 Diabetes in Europeans

Scott, R. A., Scott, L. J., Mägi, R., Marullo, L., Gaulton, K. J., Kaakinen, M., Pervjakova, N., Pers, T. H., Johnson, A. D., Eicher, J. D., Jackson, A. U., Ferreira, T., Lee, Y., Ma, C., Steinthorsdottir, V., Thorleifsson, G., Qi, L., Van Zuydam, N. R., Mahajan, A., Chen, H. & 31 othersAlmgren, P., Voight, B. F., Grallert, H., Müller-Nurasyid, M., Ried, J. S., Rayner, N. W., Robertson, N., Karssen, L. C., van Leeuwen, E. M., Willems, S. M., Fuchsberger, C., Kwan, P., Teslovich, T. M., Chanda, P., Li, M., Lu, Y., Dina, C., Thuillier, D., Yengo, L., Jiang, L., Sparso, T., Kestler, H. A., Chheda, H., Eisele, L., Gustafsson, S., Frånberg, M., Strawbridge, R. J., Benediktsson, R., Hreidarsson, A. B., Pankow, J. S. & DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) Consortium, Nov 1 2017, In : Diabetes. 66, 11, p. 2888-2902 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Genome-Wide Association Study
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Genome
Insulin
Biodiversity
2 Citations

A novel TCF7L2 type 2 diabetes SNP identified from fine mapping in African American women

Haddad, S. A., Palmer, J. R., Lunetta, K. L., Ng, M. C. Y., Ruiz-Narváez, E. A., Shriner, D., Chen, B. H., Li, J., Chen, W. M., Guo, X., Liu, J., Bielinski, S. J., Yanek, L. R., Nalls, M. A., Comeau, M. E., Rasmussen-Torvik, L. J., Jensen, R. A., Evans, D. S., Sun, Y. V., An, P. & 31 othersPatel, S. R., Lu, Y., Long, J., Armstrong, L. L., Wagenknecht, L., Yang, L., Snively, B. M., Palmer, N. D., Mudgal, P., Langefeld, C. D., Keene, K. L., Freedman, B. I., Mychaleckyj, J. C., Nayak, U., Raffel, L. J., Goodarzi, M. O., Chen, Y. D. I., Taylor, H. A., Correa, A., Sims, M., Couper, D., Pankow, J. S., Boerwinkle, E., Adeyemo, A., Doumatey, A., Chen, G., Mathias, R. A., Vaidya, D., Singleton, A. B., Zonderman, A. B. & MEDIA Consortium, Mar 1 2017, In : PloS one. 12, 3, e0172577.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

African Americans
Medical problems
noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
5 Citations

Association between high-sensitivity troponin T and cardiovascular risk in individuals with and without metabolic syndrome: The ARIC study

Pokharel, Y., Sun, W., Villareal, D. T., Selvin, E., Virani, S. S., Ndumele, C. E., Hoogeveen, R. C., Coresh, J., Boerwinkle, E., Butler, K. R., Solomon, S. D., Pankow, J. S., Bozkurt, B., Ballantyne, C. M. & Nambi, V., Jan 1 2017, In : European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. 24, 6, p. 628-638 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Troponin T
Heart Failure
Coronary Disease
Cardiovascular Diseases
29 Citations

Association of Body Mass Index with DNA Methylation and Gene Expression in Blood Cells and Relations to Cardiometabolic Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Approach

Mendelson, M. M., Marioni, R. E., Joehanes, R., Liu, C., Hedman, Å. K., Aslibekyan, S., Demerath, E. W., Guan, W., Zhi, D., Yao, C., Huan, T., Willinger, C., Chen, B., Courchesne, P., Multhaup, M., Irvin, M. R., Cohain, A., Schadt, E. E., Grove, M. L., Bressler, J. & 29 othersNorth, K., Sundström, J., Gustafsson, S., Shah, S., McRae, A. F., Harris, S. E., Gibson, J., Redmond, P., Corley, J., Murphy, L., Starr, J. M., Kleinbrink, E., Lipovich, L., Visscher, P. M., Wray, N. R., Krauss, R. M., Fallin, D., Feinberg, A., Absher, D. M., Fornage, M., Pankow, J. S., Lind, L., Fox, C., Ingelsson, E., Arnett, D. K., Boerwinkle, E., Liang, L., Levy, D. & Deary, I. J., Jan 1 2017, In : PLoS Medicine. 14, 1, e1002215.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

DNA Methylation
Random Allocation
Blood Cells
Body Mass Index
Methylation
2 Citations

Brain function and structure and risk for incident diabetes: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

Bancks, M. P., Alonso, A., Gottesman, R. F., Mosley, T. H., Selvin, E. & Pankow, J. S., Dec 1 2017, In : Alzheimer's and Dementia. 13, 12, p. 1345-1354 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cognition
Atherosclerosis
Brain
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Confidence Intervals
7 Citations

Cerebral white matter hyperintensities on MRI and acceleration of epigenetic aging: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study

Raina, A., Zhao, X., Grove, M. L., Bressler, J., Gottesman, R. F., Guan, W., Pankow, J. S., Boerwinkle, E., Mosley, T. H. & Fornage, M., Feb 14 2017, In : Clinical Epigenetics. 9, 1, 21.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Epigenomics
Atherosclerosis
DNA Methylation
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
African Americans
3 Citations

Coffee consumption and calcified atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries: The NHLBI Family Heart Study

Patel, Y. R., Gadiraju, T. V., Ellison, R. C., Hunt, S. C., Carr, J. J., Heiss, G., Arnett, D. K., Pankow, J., Gaziano, J. M. & Djoussé, L., Feb 1 2017, In : Clinical Nutrition ESPEN. 17, p. 18-21 4 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.)
Coffee
Atherosclerotic Plaques
Coronary Vessels
Calcium
37 Citations

Comparative prognostic performance of definitions of prediabetes: a prospective cohort analysis of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study

Warren, B., Pankow, J. S., Matsushita, K., Punjabi, N. M., Daya, N. R., Grams, M., Woodward, M. & Selvin, E., Jan 1 2017, In : The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology. 5, 1, p. 34-42 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Prediabetic State
Atherosclerosis
Cohort Studies
Glucose
Fasting

Correction to: Transethnic insight into the genetics of glycaemic traits: fine-mapping results from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) consortium (Diabetologia, 10.1007/s00125-017-4405-1)

Bien, S. A., Pankow, J. S., Haessler, J., Lu, Y., Pankratz, N., Rohde, R. R., Tamuno, A., Carlson, C. S., Schumacher, F. R., Bůžková, P., Daviglus, M. L., Lim, U., Fornage, M., Fernandez-Rhodes, L., Avilés-Santa, L., Buyske, S., Gross, M. D., Graff, M., Isasi, C. R., Kuller, L. H. & 12 othersManson, J. A. E., Matise, T. C., Prentice, R. L., Wilkens, L. R., Yoneyama, S., Loos, R. J. F., Hindorff, L. A., Le Marchand, L., North, K. E., Haiman, C. A., Peters, U. & Kooperberg, C., Dec 1 2017, In : Diabetologia. 60, 12, p. 2542-2543 2 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debate

Genomics
Names
Emotions
Epidemiology
Population
2 Citations

Detection of genetic loci associated with plasma fetuin-A: A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies from the CHARGE Consortium

Jensen, M. K., Jensen, R. A., Mukamal, K. J., Guo, X., Yao, J., Sun, Q., Cornelis, M., Liu, Y., Chen, M. H., Kizer, J. R., Djoussé, L., Siscovick, D. S., Psaty, B. M., Zmuda, J. M., Rotter, J. I., Garcia, M., Harris, T., Chen, I., Goodarzi, M. O., Nalls, M. A. & 11 othersKeller, M., Arnold, A. M., Newman, A. B., Hoogeveen, R. C., Rexrode, K. M., Rimm, E. B., Hu, F. B., Ramachandran, V. S., Katz, R., Pankow, J. S. & Ix, J. H., Jan 1 2017, In : Human molecular genetics. 26, 11, p. 2156-2163 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein
Genetic Loci
Genome-Wide Association Study
Meta-Analysis
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
2 Citations

Diabetes, hyperglycemia, and the burden of functional disability among older adults in a community-based study:

Godino, J. G., Appel, L. J., Gross, A. L., Schrack, J. A., Parrinello, C. M., Kalyani, R. R., Windham, B. G., Pankow, J. S., Kritchevsky, S. B., Bandeen-Roche, K. & Selvin, E., Jan 1 2017, In : Journal of Diabetes. 9, 1, p. 76-84 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Activities of Daily Living
Hyperglycemia
Comorbidity
Independent Living
Prediabetic State
1 Citations

Dichotic digits test performance across the ages: Results from two large epidemiologic cohort studies

Fischer, M. E., Cruickshanks, K. J., Nondahl, D. M., Klein, B. E. K., Klein, R., Pankow, J. S., Tweed, T. S., Dalton, D. S. & Paulsen, A. J., Jan 1 2017, In : Ear and Hearing. 38, 3, p. 314-320 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hearing Loss
Epidemiologic Studies
Cohort Studies
Ear
Epidemiology
1 Citations

Elevated Levels of Adhesion Proteins Are Associated with Low Ankle-Brachial Index: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

Berardi, C., Wassel, C. L., Decker, P. A., Larson, N. B., Kirsch, P. S., Andrade, M. D., Tsai, M. Y., Pankow, J. S., Sale, M. M., Sicotte, H., Tang, W., Hanson, N. Q., McDermott, M. M., Criqui, M. H., Allison, M. A. & Bielinski, S. J., Apr 1 2017, In : Angiology. 68, 4, p. 322-329 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ankle Brachial Index
Atherosclerosis
Proteins
Peripheral Arterial Disease
Secretory Leukocyte Peptidase Inhibitor
9 Citations

Epigenome-wide association studies identify DNA methylation associated with kidney function

Chu, A. Y., Tin, A., Schlosser, P., Ko, Y. A., Qiu, C., Yao, C., Joehanes, R., Grams, M. E., Liang, L., Gluck, C. A., Liu, C., Coresh, J., Hwang, S. J., Levy, D., Boerwinkle, E., Pankow, J. S., Yang, Q., Fornage, M., Fox, C. S., Susztak, K. & 1 othersKöttgen, A., Dec 1 2017, In : Nature communications. 8, 1, 1286.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

kidney diseases
methylation
kidneys
DNA Methylation
Glomerular Filtration Rate
1 Citations

Experiences of discrimination and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

Whitaker, K. M., Everson-Rose, S. A., Pankow, J. S., Rodriguez, C. J., Lewis, T. T., Kershaw, K. N., Diez Roux, A. V. & Lutsey, P. L., Jan 1 2017, In : American journal of epidemiology. 186, 4, p. 445-455 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Atherosclerosis
Confidence Intervals
Waist Circumference
Proportional Hazards Models
6 Citations

Ferritin levels and risk of heart failure—the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

Silvestre, O. M., Gonçalves, A., Nadruz, W., Claggett, B., Couper, D., Eckfeldt, J. H., Pankow, J., Anker, S. D. & Solomon, S. D., Mar 1 2017, In : European Journal of Heart Failure. 19, 3, p. 340-347 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ferritins
Atherosclerosis
Heart Failure
Iron
Confidence Intervals
4 Citations

Generalization and fine mapping of European ancestry-based central adiposity variants in African ancestry populations

Yoneyama, S., Yao, J., Guo, X., Fernandez-Rhodes, L., Lim, U., Boston, J., Buzková, P., Carlson, C. S., Cheng, I., Cochran, B., Cooper, R., Ehret, G., Fornage, M., Gong, J., Gross, M., Gu, C. C., Haessler, J., Haiman, C. A., Henderson, B., Hindorff, L. A. & 30 othersHouston, D., Irvin, M. R., Jackson, R., Kuller, L., Leppert, M., Lewis, C. E., Li, R., Le Marchand, L., Matise, T. C., Nguyen, K. D., Chakravarti, A., Pankow, J. S., Pankratz, N., Pooler, L., Ritchie, M. D., Bien, S. A., Wassel, C. L., Chen, Y. D., Taylor, K. D., Allison, M., Rotter, J. I., Schreiner, P. J., Schumacher, F., Wilkens, L., Boerwinkle, E., Kooperberg, C., Peters, U., Buyske, S., Graff, M. & North, K. E., Feb 1 2017, In : International Journal of Obesity. 41, 2, p. 324-331 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Waist-Hip Ratio
Adiposity
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Population
Waist Circumference
7 Citations

Genetics of type 2 diabetes in U.S. Hispanic/Latino individuals: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)

Qi, Q., Stilp, A. M., Sofer, T., Moon, J. Y., Hidalgo, B., Szpiro, A. A., Wang, T., Ng, M. C. Y., Guo, X., Chen, Y. D. I., Taylor, K. D., Aviles-Santa, M. L., Papanicolaou, G., Pankow, J. S., Schneiderman, N., Laurie, C. C., Rotter, J. I. & Kaplan, R. C., May 1 2017, In : Diabetes. 66, 5, p. 1419-1425 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hispanic Americans
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Health
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Genome-Wide Association Study
11 Citations

Genetic variants associated with circulating parathyroid hormone

Robinson-Cohen, C., Lutsey, P. L., Kleber, M. E., Nielson, C. M., Mitchell, B. D., Bis, J. C., Eny, K. M., Portas, L., Eriksson, J., Lorentzon, M., Koller, D. L., Milaneschi, Y., Teumer, A., Pilz, S., Nethander, M., Selvin, E., Tang, W., Weng, L. C., Wong, H. S., Lai, D. & 29 othersPeacock, M., Hannemann, A., Völker, U., Homuth, G., Nauk, M., Murgia, F., Pattee, J. W., Orwoll, E., Zmuda, J. M., Riancho, J. A., Wolf, M., Williams, F., Penninx, B., Econs, M. J., Ryan, K. A., Ohlsson, C., Paterson, A. D., Psaty, B. M., Siscovick, D. S., Rotter, J. I., Pirastu, M., Streeten, E., März, W., Fox, C., Coresh, J., Wallaschofski, H., Pankow, J. S., De Boer, I. H. & Kestenbaum, B., May 1 2017, In : Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 28, 5, p. 1553-1565 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Parathyroid Hormone
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Serum
Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
Dihydroxycholecalciferols
4 Citations

Genome-wide association study of 1,5-anhydroglucitol identifies novel genetic loci linked to glucose metabolism

Li, M., Maruthur, N. M., Loomis, S. J., Pietzner, M., North, K. E., Mei, H., Morrison, A. C., Friedrich, N., Pankow, J. S., Nauck, M., Boerwinkle, E., Teumer, A., Selvin, E. & Köttgen, A., Dec 1 2017, In : Scientific reports. 7, 1, 2812.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Genetic Loci
Genome-Wide Association Study
Glucose
African Americans
Fasting
1 Citations

Genome-wide association test of multiple continuous traits using imputed SNPs

Wu, B. & Pankow, J., Jan 1 2017, In : Statistics and its Interface. 10, 3, p. 379-386 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Genome
Genes
Genotype
Covariates
Medical problems
1 Citations

Hepatocyte growth factor demonstrates racial heterogeneity as a biomarker for coronary heart disease

Bielinski, S. J., Berardi, C., Decker, P. A., Larson, N. B., Bell, E. J., Pankow, J. S., Sale, M. M., Tang, W., Hanson, N. Q., Wassel, C. L., De Andrade, M., Budoff, M. J., Polak, J. F., Sicotte, H. & Tsai, M. Y., Aug 1 2017, In : Heart. 103, 15, p. 1185-1193 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hepatocyte Growth Factor
Coronary Disease
Biomarkers
Hispanic Americans
African Americans
2 Citations
Brachial Artery
Blood Vessels
Pulse Wave Analysis
Elastic Modulus
Parents

Hospitalization with infection and incident venous thromboembolism: The ARIC study

Cowan, L. T., Lutsey, P. L., Pankow, J. S., Cushman, M. & Folsom, A. R., Mar 1 2017, In : Thrombosis Research. 151, p. 74-78 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Venous Thromboembolism
Atherosclerosis
Hospitalization
Infection
Cross-Over Studies
3 Citations
Protein C
Lipoproteins
Atherosclerosis
Genome
LDL Cholesterol
17 Citations

Impact of common genetic determinants of Hemoglobin A1c on type 2 diabetes risk and diagnosis in ancestrally diverse populations: A transethnic genome-wide meta-analysis

Wheeler, E., Leong, A., Liu, C. T., Hivert, M. F., Strawbridge, R. J., Podmore, C., Li, M., Yao, J., Sim, X., Hong, J., Chu, A. Y., Zhang, W., Wang, X., Chen, P., Maruthur, N. M., Porneala, B. C., Sharp, S. J., Jia, Y., Kabagambe, E. K., Chang, L. C. & 33 othersChen, W. M., Elks, C. E., Evans, D. S., Fan, Q., Giulianini, F., Go, M. J., Hottenga, J. J., Hu, Y., Jackson, A. U., Kanoni, S., Kim, Y. J., Kleber, M. E., Ladenvall, C., Lecoeur, C., Lim, S. H., Lu, Y., Mahajan, A., Marzi, C., Nalls, M. A., Navarro, P., Nolte, I. M., Rose, L. M., Rybin, D. V., Sanna, S., Shi, Y., Stram, D. O., Takeuchi, F., Pankow, J. S., Heng, C. K., Sabanayagam, C., EPIC-CVD Consortium, EPIC-InterAct Consortium & Lifelines Cohort Study, Sep 1 2017, In : PLoS Medicine. 14, 9, e1002383.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Meta-Analysis
Hemoglobins
Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency
Genome

Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and particle concentrations are associated with greater levels of endothelial activation markers in Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants

Steffen, B. T., Bielinski, S. J., Decker, P. A., Berardi, C., Larson, N. B., Pankow, J. S., Michos, E. D., Hanson, N. Q., Herrington, D. M. & Tsai, M. Y., Jul 1 2017, In : Journal of Clinical Lipidology. 11, 4, p. 955-963.e3

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

HDL Lipoproteins
LDL Cholesterol
HDL Cholesterol
Atherosclerosis
Selectins
8 Citations

Quantifying the extent to which index event biases influence large genetic association studies

Yaghootkar, H., Bancks, M. P., Jones, S. E., McDaid, A., Beaumont, R., Donnelly, L., Wood, A. R., Campbell, A., Tyrrell, J., Hocking, L. J., Tuke, M. A., Ruth, K. S., Pearson, E. R., Murray, A., Freathy, R. M., Munroe, P. B., Hayward, C., Palmer, C., Weedon, M. N., Pankow, J. S. & 2 othersFrayling, T. M. & Kutalik, Z., Mar 1 2017, In : Human molecular genetics. 26, 5, p. 1003-1017 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Genetic Association Studies
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
RNA
Genome-Wide Association Study
Exons
4 Citations

Taller height as a risk factor for venous thromboembolism: a Mendelian randomization meta-analysis

Roetker, N. S., Armasu, S. M., Pankow, J. S., Lutsey, P. L., Tang, W., Rosenberg, M. A., Palmer, T. M., Maclehose, R. F., Heckbert, S. R., Cushman, M., de Andrade, M. & Folsom, A. R., Jul 1 2017, In : Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 15, 7, p. 1334-1343 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mendelian Randomization Analysis
Venous Thromboembolism
Meta-Analysis
Odds Ratio
Confidence Intervals
2 Citations

Transethnic insight into the genetics of glycaemic traits: fine-mapping results from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) consortium

Bien, S. A., Pankow, J. S., Haessler, J., Lu, Y. N., Pankratz, N., Rohde, R. R., Tamuno, A., Carlson, C. S., Schumacher, F. R., Bůžková, P., Daviglus, M. L., Lim, U., Fornage, M., Fernandez-Rhodes, L., Avilés-Santa, L., Buyske, S., Gross, M. D., Graff, M., Isasi, C. R., Kuller, L. H. & 12 othersManson, J. A. E., Matise, T. C., Prentice, R. L., Wilkens, L. R., Yoneyama, S., Loos, R. J. F., Hindorff, L. A., Le Marchand, L., North, K. E., Haiman, C. A., Peters, U. & Kooperberg, C., Dec 1 2017, In : Diabetologia. 60, 12, p. 2384-2398 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Genomics
Fasting
Epidemiology
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Population
14 Citations

Type 2 Diabetes Variants Disrupt Function of SLC16A11 through Two Distinct Mechanisms

Rusu, V., Rusu, V., Hoch, E., Mercader, J. M., Gymrek, M., von Grotthuss, M., Fontanillas, P., Spooner, A., Altshuler, D. M., Florez, J. C., Jacobs, S. B. R., Hoch, E., Clish, C. B., Florez, J. C., Jacobs, S. B. R., Mercader, J. M., Florez, J. C., Jacobs, S. B. R., Mercader, J. M., Tenen, D. E. & 51 othersHartigan, C. R., DeRan, M., Guzman, G., Deik, A. A., Pierce, K. A., Dennis, C., Clish, C. B., Carr, S. A., Wagner, B. K., Schenone, M., Schreiber, S. L., Lander, E. S., Tenen, D. E., Gymrek, M., Ng, M. C. Y., Chen, B. H., Centeno-Cruz, F., Orozco, L., Zerrweck, C., Altshuler, D. M., Altshuler, D. M., Altshuler, D. M., Florez, J. C., Altshuler, D. M., Lander, E. S., Lander, E. S., Ng, M. C. Y., Shriner, D., Chen, B. H., Pankow, J. S., MEDIA Consortium, the FIND Consortium, the eMERGE Consortium, the DIAGRAM Consortium, the MuTHER Consortium, SIGMA T2D Consortium, the FIND Consortium, the eMERGE Consortium, the DIAGRAM Consortium, the MuTHER Consortium, SIGMA T2D Consortium, the eMERGE Consortium, the DIAGRAM Consortium, the MuTHER Consortium, SIGMA T2D Consortium, the DIAGRAM Consortium, the MuTHER Consortium, SIGMA T2D Consortium, the MuTHER Consortium, SIGMA T2D Consortium & SIGMA T2D Consortium, Jun 29 2017, In : Cell. 170, 1, p. 199-212.e20

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Medical problems
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Haplotypes
CD147 Antigens
Mexico
2016
5 Citations

ABO blood group associations with markers of endothelial dysfunction in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

Larson, N. B., Bell, E. J., Decker, P. A., Pike, M., Wassel, C. L., Tsai, M. Y., Pankow, J., Tang, W., Hanson, N. Q., Alexander, K., Zakai, N. A., Cushman, M. & Bielinski, S. J., Aug 1 2016, In : Atherosclerosis. 251, p. 422-429 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Selectins
Blood Group Antigens
Atherosclerosis
Alleles
von Willebrand Factor
31 Citations

A genomic approach to therapeutic target validation identifies a glucose-lowering GLP1R variant protective for coronary heart disease

Scott, R. A., Freitag, D. F., Li, L., Chu, A. Y., Surendran, P., Young, R., Grarup, N., Stancáková, A., Chen, Y., Varga, T. V., Yaghootkar, H., Luan, J., Zhao, J. H., Willems, S. M., Wessel, J., Wang, S., Maruthur, N., Michailidou, K., Pirie, A., Van Der Lee, S. J. & 118 othersGillson, C., Al Olama, A. A., Amouyel, P., Arriola, L., Arveiler, D., Aviles-Olmos, I., Balkau, B., Barricarte, A., Barroso, I., Garcia, S. B., Bis, J. C., Blankenberg, S., Boehnke, M., Boeing, H., Boerwinkle, E., Borecki, I. B., Bork-Jensen, J., Bowden, S., Caldas, C., Caslake, M., Cupples, L. A., Cruchaga, C., Czajkowski, J., Den Hoed, M., Dunn, J. A., Earl, H. M., Ehret, G. B., Ferrannini, E., Ferrieres, J., Foltynie, T., Ford, I., Forouhi, N. G., Gianfagna, F., Gonzalez, C., Grioni, S., Hiller, L., Jansson, J. H., Jørgensen, M. E., Jukema, J. W., Kaaks, R., Kee, F., Kerrison, N. D., Key, T. J., Kontto, J., Kote-Jarai, Z., Kraja, A. T., Kuulasmaa, K., Kuusisto, J., Linneberg, A., Liu, C., Marenne, G., Mohlke, K. L., Morris, A. P., Muir, K., Müller-Nurasyid, M., Munroe, P. B., Navarro, C., Nielsen, S. F., Nilsson, P. M., Nordestgaard, B. G., Packard, C. J., Palli, D., Panico, S., Peloso, G. M., Perola, M., Peters, A., Poole, C. J., Quirós, J. R., Rolandsson, O., Sacerdote, C., Salomaa, V., Sánchez, M. J., Sattar, N., Sharp, S. J., Sims, R., Slimani, N., Smith, J. A., Thompson, D. J., Trompet, S., Tumino, R., Van Der A, D. L., Van Der Schouw, Y. T., Virtamo, J., Walker, M., Walter, K., Abraham, J. E., Amundadottir, L. T., Butterworth, A. S., Aponte, J. L., Dupuis, J., Easton, D. F., Eeles, R. A., Erdmann, J., Franks, P. W., Frayling, T. M., Hansen, T., Howson, J. M. M., Jørgensen, T., Kooner, J., Laakso, M., McCarthy, M. I., Pankow, J. S., Pedersen, O., Riboli, E., Rotter, J. I., Saleheen, D., Samani, N. J., Schunkert, H., Vollenweider, P., O'Rahilly, S., Deloukas, P., Danesh, J., Goodarzi, M. O., Kathiresan, S., Meigs, J. B., Ehm, M. G., Wareham, N. J. & Waterworth, D. M., Jun 1 2016, In : Science Translational Medicine. 8, 341, 341ra76.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Coronary Disease
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Glucose
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Genes
17 Citations

A principal component meta-analysis on multiple anthropometric traits identifies novel loci for body shape

Ried, J. S., Jeff, J. M., Chu, A. Y., Bragg-Gresham, J. L., Van Dongen, J., Huffman, J. E., Ahluwalia, T. S., Cadby, G., Eklund, N., Eriksson, J., Esko, T., Feitosa, M. F., Goel, A., Gorski, M., Hayward, C., Heard-Costa, N. L., Jackson, A. U., Jokinen, E., Kanoni, S., Kristiansson, K. & 256 othersKutalik, Z., Lahti, J., Luan, J., Mägi, R., Mahajan, A., Mangino, M., Medina-Gomez, C., Monda, K. L., Nolte, I. M., Pérusse, L., Prokopenko, I., Qi, L., Rose, L. M., Salvi, E., Smith, M. T., Snieder, H., Standáková, A., Ju Sung, Y., Tachmazidou, I., Teumer, A., Thorleifsson, G., Van Der Harst, P., Walker, R. W., Wang, S. R., Wild, S. H., Willems, S. M., Wong, A., Zhang, W., Albrecht, E., Couto Alves, A., Bakker, S. J. L., Barlassina, C., Bartz, T. M., Beilby, J., Bellis, C., Bergman, R. N., Bergmann, S., Blangero, J., Blüher, M., Boerwinkle, E., Bonnycastle, L. L., Bornstein, S. R., Bruinenberg, M., Campbell, H., Chen, Y. D. I., Chiang, C. W. K., Chines, P. S., Collins, F. S., Cucca, F., Cupples, L. A., D'avila, F., De Geus, E. J. C., Dedoussis, G., Dimitriou, M., Döring, A., Eriksson, J. G., Farmaki, A. E., Farrall, M., Ferreira, T., Fischer, K., Forouhi, N. G., Friedrich, N., Gjesing, A. P., Glorioso, N., Graff, M., Grallert, H., Grarup, N., Gräßler, J., Grewal, J., Hamsten, A., Harder, M. N., Hartman, C. A., Hassinen, M., Hastie, N., Hattersley, A. T., Havulinna, A. S., Heliövaara, M., Hillege, H., Hofman, A., Holmen, O., Homuth, G., Hottenga, J. J., Hui, J., Husemoen, L. L., Hysi, P. G., Isaacs, A., Ittermann, T., Jalilzadeh, S., James, A. L., Jørgensen, T., Jousilahti, P., Jula, A., Marie Justesen, J., Justice, A. E., Kähönen, M., Karaleftheri, M., Tee Khaw, K., Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, S. M., Kinnunen, L., Knekt, P. B., Koistinen, H. A., Kolcic, I., Kooner, I. K., Koskinen, S., Kovacs, P., Kyriakou, T., Laitinen, T., Langenberg, C., Lewin, A. M., Lichtner, P., Lindgren, C. M., Lindström, J., Linneberg, A., Lorbeer, R., Lorentzon, M., Luben, R., Lyssenko, V., Männistö, S., Manunta, P., Leach, I. M., Mcardle, W. L., Mcknight, B., Mohlke, K. L., Mihailov, E., Milani, L., Mills, R., Montasser, M. E., Morris, A. P., Müller, G., Musk, A. W., Narisu, N., Ong, K. K., Oostra, B. A., Osmond, C., Palotie, A., Pankow, J. S., Paternoster, L., Penninx, B. W., Pichler, I., Pilia, M. G., Polašek, O., Pramstaller, P. P., Raitakari, O. T., Rankinen, T., Rao, D. C., Rayner, N. W., Ribel-Madsen, R., Rice, T. K., Richards, M., Ridker, P. M., Rivadeneira, F., Ryan, K. A., Sanna, S., Sarzynski, M. A., Scholtens, S., Scott, R. A., Sebert, S., Southam, L., Sparsø, T. H., Steinthorsdottir, V., Stirrups, K., Stolk, R. P., Strauch, K., Stringham, H. M., Swertz, M. A., Swift, A. J., Tönjes, A., Tsafantakis, E., Van Der Most, P. J., Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, J. V., Vandenput, L., Vartiainen, E., Venturini, C., Verweij, N., Viikari, J. S., Vitart, V., Vohl, M. C., Vonk, J. M., Waeber, G., Widén, E., Willemsen, G., Wilsgaard, T., Winkler, T. W., Wright, A. F., Yerges-Armstrong, L. M., Zhao, J. H., Carola Zillikens, M., Boomsma, D. I., Bouchard, C., Chambers, J. C., Chasman, D. I., Cusi, D., Gansevoort, R. T., Gieger, C., Hansen, T., Hicks, A. A., Hu, F., Hveem, K., Jarvelin, M. R., Kajantie, E., Kooner, J. S., Kuh, D., Kuusisto, J., Laakso, M., Lakka, T. A., Lehtimäki, T., Metspalu, A., Njølstad, I., Ohlsson, C., Oldehinkel, A. J., Palmer, L. J., Pedersen, O., Perola, M., Peters, A., Psaty, B. M., Puolijoki, H., Rauramaa, R., Rudan, I., Salomaa, V., Schwarz, P. E. H., Shudiner, A. R., Smit, J. H., Sørensen, T. I. A., Spector, T. D., Stefansson, K., Stumvoll, M., Tremblay, A., Tuomilehto, J., Uitterlinden, A. G., Uusitupa, M., Völker, U., Vollenweider, P., Wareham, N. J., Watkins, H., Wilson, J. F., Zeggini, E., Abecasis, G. R., Boehnke, M., Borecki, I. B., Deloukas, P., Van Duijn, C. M., Fox, C., Groop, L. C., Heid, I. M., Hunter, D. J., Kaplan, R. C., Mccarthy, M. I., North, K. E., O'connell, J. R., Schlessinger, D., Thorsteinsdottir, U., Strachan, D. P., Frayling, T., Hirschhorn, J. N., Müller-Nurasyid, M. & Loos, R. J. F., Nov 23 2016, In : Nature communications. 7, 13357.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

loci
Principal Component Analysis
phenotype
Meta-Analysis
Phenotype
25 Citations

Association of 1,5-anhydroglucitol with cardiovascular disease and mortality

Selvin, E., Rawlings, A., Lutsey, P., Maruthur, N., Pankow, J. S., Steffes, M. & Coresh, J., Jan 1 2016, In : Diabetes. 65, 1, p. 201-208 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cardiovascular Diseases
Mortality
Atherosclerosis
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Proportional Hazards Models
4 Citations

Association of lipid-related genetic variants with the incidence of atrial fibrillation: The AFGen consortium

Norby, F. L., Eryd, S. A., Niemeijer, M. N., Rose, L. M., Smith, A. V., Yin, X., Agarwal, S. K., Arking, D. E., Chasman, D. L., Chen, L. Y., Eijgelsheim, M., Engström, G., Franco, O. H., Heeringa, J., Hindy, G., Hofman, A., Lutsey, P. L., Magnani, J. W., McManus, D. D., Orho-Melander, M. & 10 othersPankow, J. S., Rukh, G., Schulz, C. A., Uitterlinden, A. G., Albert, C. M., Benjamin, E. J., Gudnason, V., Smith, J. G., Stricker, B. H. C. & Alonso, A., Mar 1 2016, In : PloS one. 11, 3, e0151932.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Atrial Fibrillation
Genes
Lipids
incidence
Incidence
1 Citations

Association of the IGF1 gene with fasting insulin levels

Willems, S. M., Cornes, B. K., Brody, J. A., Morrison, A. C., Lipovich, L., Dauriz, M., Chen, Y., Liu, C. T., Rybin, D. V., Gibbs, R. A., Muzny, D., Pankow, J. S., Psaty, B. M., Boerwinkle, E., Rotter, J. I., Siscovick, D. S., Vasan, R. S., Kaplan, R. C., Isaacs, A., Dupuis, J. & 2 othersvan Duijn, C. M. & Meigs, J. B., Aug 1 2016, In : European Journal of Human Genetics. 24, 9, p. 1337-1343 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fasting
Insulin
Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
Genome-Wide Association Study
Genes

Blood group antigen loci demonstrate multivariate genetic associations with circulating cellular adhesion protein levels in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

Larson, N. B., Decker, P. A., Wassel, C. L., Pankow, J., Tang, W., Hanson, N. Q., Tsai, M. Y. & Bielinski, S. J., Apr 1 2016, In : Human Genetics. 135, 4, p. 415-423 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Blood Group Antigens
Atherosclerosis
Proteins
Quantitative Trait Loci
Genome
5 Citations

Carboxymethyl lysine, an advanced glycation end product, and incident diabetes: a case–cohort analysis of the ARIC Study

Luft, V. C., Duncan, B. B., Schmidt, M. I., Chambless, L. E., Pankow, J., Hoogeveen, R. C., Couper, D. J. & Heiss, G., Oct 1 2016, In : Diabetic Medicine. 33, 10, p. 1392-1398 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Advanced Glycosylation End Products
Cohort Studies
Fasting
Glucose
Confidence Intervals
6 Citations

Circulating cellular adhesion molecules and risk of diabetes: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

Pankow, J., Decker, P. A., Berardi, C., Hanson, N. Q., Sale, M., Tang, W., Kanaya, A. M., Larson, N. B., Tsai, M. Y., Wassel, C. L. & Bielinski, S. J., Jul 1 2016, In : Diabetic Medicine. 33, 7, p. 985-991 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

E-Selectin
Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1
Atherosclerosis
Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
Cadherins
6 Citations

Circulating level of hepatocyte growth factor predicts incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

Bancks, M. P., Bielinski, S. J., Decker, P. A., Hanson, N. Q., Larson, N. B., Sicotte, H., Wassel, C. L. & Pankow, J., Mar 1 2016, In : Metabolism: clinical and experimental. 65, 3, p. 64-72 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hepatocyte Growth Factor
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Atherosclerosis
Incidence
Social Adjustment
115 Citations

DNA methylation-based measures of biological age: Meta-analysis predicting time to death

Chen, B. H., Marioni, R. E., Colicino, E., Peters, M. J., Ward-Caviness, C. K., Tsai, P. C., Roetker, N. S., Just, A. C., Demerath, E. W., Guan, W., Bressler, J., Fornage, M., Studenski, S., Vandiver, A. R., Moore, A. Z., Tanaka, T., Kiel, D. P., Liang, L., Vokonas, P., Schwartz, J. & 46 othersLunetta, K. L., Murabito, J. M., Bandinelli, S., Hernandez, D. G., Melzer, D., Nalls, M., Pilling, L. C., Price, T. R., Singleton, A. B., Gieger, C., Holle, R., Kretschmer, A., Kronenberg, F., Kunze, S., Linseisen, J., Meisinger, C., Rathmann, W., Waldenberger, M., Visscher, P. M., Shah, S., Wray, N. R., McRae, A. F., Franco, O. H., Hofman, A., Uitterlinden, A. G., Absher, D., Assimes, T., Levine, M. E., Lu, A. T., Tsao, P. S., Hou, L., Manson, J. A. E., Carty, C. L., LaCroix, A. Z., Reiner, A. P., Spector, T. D., Feinberg, A. P., Levy, D., Baccarelli, A., Meurs, J. V., Bell, J. T., Peters, A., Deary, I. J., Pankow, J. S., Ferrucci, L. & Horvath, S., Jan 1 2016, In : Aging. 8, 9, p. 1844-1865 22 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

DNA Methylation
Epigenomics
Meta-Analysis
Mortality
Ethnic Groups
40 Citations

DNA methylation signatures of chronic low-grade inflammation are associated with complex diseases

Ligthart, S., Marzi, C., Aslibekyan, S., Mendelson, M. M., Conneely, K. N., Tanaka, T., Colicino, E., Waite, L. L., Joehanes, R., Guan, W., Brody, J. A., Elks, C., Marioni, R., Jhun, M. A., Agha, G., Bressler, J., Ward-Caviness, C. K., Chen, B. H., Huan, T., Bakulski, K. & 67 othersSalfati, E. L., Fiorito, G., Wahl, S., Schramm, K., Sha, J., Hernandez, D. G., Just, A. C., Smith, J. A., Sotoodehnia, N., Pilling, L. C., Pankow, J. S., Tsao, P. S., Liu, C., Zhao, W., Guarrera, S., Michopoulos, V. J., Smith, A. K., Peters, M. J., Melzer, D., Vokonas, P., Fornage, M., Prokisch, H., Bis, J. C., Chu, A. Y., Herder, C., Grallert, H., Yao, C., Shah, S., McRae, A. F., Lin, H., Horvath, S., Fallin, D., Hofman, A., Wareham, N. J., Wiggins, K. L., Feinberg, A. P., Starr, J. M., Visscher, P. M., Murabito, J. M., Kardia, S. L. R., Absher, D. M., Binder, E. B., Singleton, A. B., Bandinelli, S., Peters, A., Waldenberger, M., Matullo, G., Schwartz, J. D., Demerath, E. W., Uitterlinden, A. G., Meurs, J. B. J., Franco, O. H., Chen, Y. D. I., Levy, D., Turner, S. T., Deary, I. J., Ressler, K. J., Dupuis, J., Ferrucci, L., Ong, K. K., Assimes, T. L., Boerwinkle, E., Koenig, W., Arnett, D. K., Baccarelli, A. A., Benjamin, E. J. & Dehghan, A., Dec 12 2016, In : Genome biology. 17, 1, 255.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

methylation
DNA methylation
DNA Methylation
inflammation
Inflammation
94 Citations

Epigenetic Signatures of Cigarette Smoking

Joehanes, R., Just, A. C., Marioni, R. E., Pilling, L. C., Reynolds, L. M., Mandaviya, P. R., Guan, W., Xu, T., Elks, C. E., Aslibekyan, S., Moreno-Macias, H., Smith, J. A., Brody, J. A., Dhingra, R., Yousefi, P., Pankow, J. S., Kunze, S., Shah, S. H., McRae, A. F., Lohman, K. & 63 othersSha, J., Absher, D. M., Ferrucci, L., Zhao, W., Demerath, E. W., Bressler, J., Grove, M. L., Huan, T., Liu, C., Mendelson, M. M., Yao, C., Kiel, D. P., Peters, A., Wang-Sattler, R., Visscher, P. M., Wray, N. R., Starr, J. M., Ding, J., Rodriguez, C. J., Wareham, N. J., Irvin, M. R., Zhi, D., Barrdahl, M., Vineis, P., Ambatipudi, S., Uitterlinden, A. G., Hofman, A., Schwartz, J., Colicino, E., Hou, L., Vokonas, P. S., Hernandez, D. G., Singleton, A. B., Bandinelli, S., Turner, S. T., Ware, E. B., Smith, A. K., Klengel, T., Binder, E. B., Psaty, B. M., Taylor, K. D., Gharib, S. A., Swenson, B. R., Liang, L., Demeo, D. L., O'Connor, G. T., Herceg, Z., Ressler, K. J., Conneely, K. N., Sotoodehnia, N., Kardia, S. L. R., Melzer, D., Baccarelli, A. A., Van Meurs, J. B. J., Romieu, I., Arnett, D. K., Ong, K. K., Liu, Y., Waldenberger, M., Deary, I. J., Fornage, M., Levy, D. & London, S. J., Oct 1 2016, In : Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics. 9, 5, p. 436-447 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Epigenomics
Smoking
DNA Methylation
Methylation
Tobacco
3 Citations

Erratum: Identification and validation of N-acetyltransferase 2 as an insulin sensitivity gene (American Society for Clinical Investigation (2015)125:4 (1739-1751) DOI 10.1172/JCI74692)

Knowles, J. W., Xie, W., Zhang, Z., Chennamsetty, I., Assimes, T. L., Paananen, J., Hansson, O., Pankow, J., Goodarzi, M. O., Carcamo-Orive, I., Morris, A. P., Chen, Y. D. I., Mäkinen, V. P., Ganna, A., Mahajan, A., Guo, X., Abbasi, F., Greenawalt, D. M., Lum, P., Molony, C. & 19 othersLind, L., Lindgren, C., Raffel, L. J., Tsao, P. S., Schadt, E. E., Rotter, J. I., Sinaiko, A., Reaven, G., Yang, X., Hsiung, C. A., Groop, L., Cordell, H. J., Laakso, M., Hao, K., Ingelsson, E., Frayling, T. M., Weedon, M. N., Walker, M. & Quertermous, T., Jan 4 2016, In : Journal of Clinical Investigation. 126, 1, 1 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debate

Acetyltransferases
Insulin Resistance
Genes
4 Citations

Genetic loci associated with ideal cardiovascular health: A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies

Allen, N. B., Lloyd-Jones, D., Hwang, S. J., Rasmussen-Torvik, L., Fornage, M., Morrison, A. C., Baldridge, A. S., Boerwinkle, E., Levy, D., Cupples, L. A., Fox, C. S., Thanassoulis, G., Dufresne, L., Daviglus, M., Johnson, A. D., Reis, J., Rotter, J., Palmas, W., Allison, M., Pankow, J. S. & 1 othersO'Donnell, C. J., May 1 2016, In : American Heart Journal. 175, p. 112-120 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Genetic Loci
Genome-Wide Association Study
Meta-Analysis
Health
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
2 Citations

Genome-wide interaction with insulin secretion loci reveals novel loci for type 2 diabetes in African Americans

Keaton, J. M., Hellwege, J. N., Ng, M. C. Y., Palmer, N. D., Pankow, J. S., Fornage, M., Wilson, J. G., Correa, A., Rasmussen-Torvik, L. J., Rotter, J. I., Chen, Y. D. I., Taylor, K. D., Rich, S. S., Wagenknecht, L. E., Freedman, B. I. & Bowden, D. W., Jul 1 2016, In : PloS one. 11, 7, e0159977.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

insulin secretion
African Americans
Medical problems
noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
1 Citations

GENOME-WIDE INTERACTION WITH SELECTED TYPE 2 DIABETES LOCI REVEALS NOVEL LOCI FOR TYPE 2 DIABETES IN AFRICAN AMERICANS

Keaton, J. M., Hellwege, J. N., Ng, M. C. Y., Palmer, N. D., Pankow, J. S., Fornage, M., Wilson, J. G., Correa, A., Rasmussen-Torvik, L. J., Rotter, J. I., Chen, Y. D. E. R. I., Taylor, K. D., Rich, S. S., Wagenknecht, L. E., Freedman, B. I. & Bowden, D. W., Jan 1 2016, In : Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing. 22, p. 242-253 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

African Americans
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Genome
Insulin
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
3 Citations

Hepatocyte growth factor is positively associated with risk of stroke: The MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis)

Bell, E. J., Larson, N. B., Decker, P. A., Pankow, J., Tsai, M. Y., Hanson, N. Q., Wassel, C. L., Longstreth, W. T. & Bielinski, S. J., Nov 1 2016, In : Stroke. 47, 11, p. 2689-2694 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hepatocyte Growth Factor
Atherosclerosis
Stroke
Confidence Intervals
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)