7 T renal MRI: challenges and promises

Anneloes de Boer, Johannes M. Hoogduin, Peter J. Blankestijn, Xiufeng Li, Peter R. Luijten, Gregory J. Metzger, Alexander J.E. Raaijmakers, Lale Umutlu, Fredy Visser, Tim Leiner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


The progression to 7 Tesla (7 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) yields promises of substantial increase in signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio. This increase can be traded off to increase image spatial resolution or to decrease acquisition time. However, renal 7 T MRI remains challenging due to inhomogeneity of the radiofrequency field and due to specific absorption rate (SAR) constraints. A number of studies has been published in the field of renal 7 T imaging. While the focus initially was on anatomic imaging and renal MR angiography, later studies have explored renal functional imaging. Although anatomic imaging remains somewhat limited by inhomogeneous excitation and SAR constraints, functional imaging results are promising. The increased SNR at 7 T has been particularly advantageous for blood oxygen level-dependent and arterial spin labelling MRI, as well as sodium MR imaging, thanks to changes in field-strength-dependent magnetic properties. Here, we provide an overview of the currently available literature on renal 7 T MRI. In addition, we provide a brief overview of challenges and opportunities in renal 7 T MR imaging.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)417-433
Number of pages17
JournalMagnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016, The Author(s).


  • 7 T MRI
  • Kidney
  • RF shimming
  • Renal MRI


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