3-Hydroxypyrimidine-2,4-dione (HPD) represents a versatile chemical core in the design of inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT)-associated RNase H and integrase strand transfer (INST). We report herein the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of an HPD subtype (4) featuring a cyclohexylmethyl group at the C-6 position. Antiviral testing showed that most analogues of 4 inhibited HIV-1 in the low nanomolar to submicromolar range, without cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 100 μM. Biochemically, these analogues dually inhibited both the polymerase (pol) and the RNase H functions of RT, but not INST. Co-crystal structure of 4a with RT revealed a nonnucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI) binding mode. Interestingly, chemotype 11, the synthetic precursor of 4 lacking the 3-OH group, did not inhibit RNase H while potently inhibiting pol. By virtue of the potent antiviral activity and biochemical RNase H inhibition, HPD subtype 4 could provide a viable platform for eventually achieving potent and selective RNase H inhibition through further medicinal chemistry.
- 3-Hydroxypyrimidine-2,4-dione (HPD)
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
- RNase H