5.29 - Trigeminal Mechanisms of Nociception: Peripheral and Brain Stem Organization

David A. Bereiter, Kenneth M. Hargreaves

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


The trigeminal nerve (Vn) plays a unique role in protecting specialized sense organs of the head and oral cavity, such as the retina, from environmental challenges. Pain is the dominant sensation evoked by stimulation of dental pulp, cornea or dura, tissues supplied by almost exclusively by small diameter afferent fibers and that terminate as free nerve endings. Neuroimmune mechanisms act peripherally and centrally to modify craniofacial pain. Sex hormone status is a key factor in many craniofacial pain conditions which are often more prevalent in females than males.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe Senses
Subtitle of host publicationA Comprehensive Reference: Volume 1-7, Second Edition
Number of pages18
ISBN (Electronic)9780128054093
ISBN (Print)9780128054086
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


  • Cornea
  • Craniofacial pain
  • Dental pain
  • Dura
  • Meningeal pain
  • Neuroimmune biomarkers
  • Ocular pain
  • Sex differences
  • Tooth pulp
  • Trigeminal brainstem
  • Trigeminal ganglion
  • Trigeminal nociceptors


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